Photocopying and scanning

Photocopying or scanning of material in copyright is permitted provided one of the following routes applies:

  • A copyright exception i.e. ‘fair dealing’;
  • under a licence (i.e. the Copyright Licensing Agency licence); or
  • with permission from the rights holder.

Photocopying: Limits, what's covered, course packs, accessible texts

Photocopying for private study or non-commercial research is fine provided that less than 1 chapter or 5%, or 1 article from a journal is copied.

Handouts for Class- The CLA Licence

The CLA licence permits staff to make multiple photocopies (based on class sizes) of most material published by UK publishers and also from a number of international publications.

The licence allows copying based no the following criteria:

  • The work is owned by the University;
  • the work is included within the CLA repertoire; and
  • the amount used falls within one of the following limits:
    • 10% of any published edition; or
    • 1 chapter from a book; or
    • 1 article in an issue of a serial publication (journal) or in a set of conference proceedings; or
    • 1 short story or poem not exceeding 10 pages from an anthology; or
    • 1 case report from judicial proceedings.

The number of copies that can be made by a member of staff is limited to the number of students enrolled, plus the member of staff themselves. 

Material not covered by the Licence

  • Works not owned by the University (e.g. a tutor’s privately owned copy of a book);
  • material on the CLA list of excluded categories and works, which includes certain broad categories of material (e.g. printed music, including lyrics, maps);
  • all material originating from some publishers;
  • selections of material originating from some others. See the CLA ;
  • material published in the countries that do not have agreements with the CLA. 

Course Packs

Staff must take care to ensure that they do not create 'course packs' comprising several individual acts of legitimate copying which, cumulatively, create a quasi -textbook.  This resource then competes with an already published work and potentially damages the economic interests of the rights holder.

The CLA have produced a good practice guide in the creation of course packs and tutors who are preparing material for a course are advised to read this before doing so.

Accessible Texts

Photocopying that is carried out for staff or students with disabilities is also covered by the licence. 

See the web page 'Accessible texts' for further information.

Digitisation (scanning): Limits, what's covered, course packs, accessible texts

Digitisation is the creation of digital files from a printed source (i.e. scanning book chapter) or saving a copy of an extract from digital source (i.e. downloading and saving a journal article).

Students and staff may digitise extracts for private study or non-commercial research provided that less than 1 chapter or 5%, or 1 article from a journal is copied.

From September 2016 digitisation (scanning) for teaching purposes will be managed via the ‘request digitisation’ function embedded within ResourceLists@Bham and will be completed by the Digitisation Service.

Scanning for Class- The CLA Licence

The Digitisation Service provides digitisations that are embedded within the ResourceLists@Bham platform.  These scans comply with all of the following CLA requirements and ensure that high quality materials are available to your students:

  • The work is owned by the University;
  • the work is included within the CLA repertoire; and
  • the amount used falls within one of the following limits:
    • 10% of any published edition; or
    • 1 chapter from a book; or
    • 1 article in an issue of a serial publication (journal) or in a set of conference proceedings; or
    • 1 short story or poem not exceeding 10 pages from an anthology; or
    • 1 case report from judicial proceedings, and 
    • the use of the scan is reported to the CLA.

Material not covered by the licence

  • Works not owned by the University (e.g. a tutor’s privately owned copy of a book);
  • material on the CLA list of excluded categories and works which includes certain broad categories of material (e.g. printed music, including the words);
  • all material originating from some publishers;
  • material published in the countries that do not have agreements with the CLA or where those agreements do not include scanning.

Accessible Texts

Scanning that is carried out for staff or students with disabilities is also covered by the licence.