Most people will recognise that copying someone else's work or not referencing properly is plagiarism; but do you know that submitting work and assessments created by someone or something else is also plagiarism and a form of academic misconduct? Below is more information about the different types of plagiarism.
This is presenting word done by others as your own work, including copying other students (past or present), reproducing course materials (lecture notes, presentations, data etc.), or cutting and pasting directly from the internet or copying out parts of a textbook or journal.
It can also include inadequate or misleading referencing or paraphrasing.
Sometimes called auto-plagiarism, this is when you submit work you have submitted before, whether at Birmingham or another university, without referencing it appropriately. This could be all or part of your work.
Collusion is collaborating with other students on work that is presented as your own individual work. This can include working together on essays or discussing the content of take-home exams with others.
Collusion does not include permitted collaboration as part of group work.
Fabrication or misrepresentation
This is claiming to have done work which you haven't actually done, and includes falsifying or misrepresenting data, evidence or results which form part of your work.
Commisioning work, buying essays and software/ using generative AI
This includes submitting work that you have not done yourself that has been bought from an essay writing company or website, downloaded from an essay repository, or which has been prepared or generated by someone or something other than you. This could be all or part of your work.
Unacceptable proof-reading would be someone reading your work and rewriting all or part of the text to improve the arguments you are making, to add new arguments, or to rewrite computer code.
For postgraduate theses written in English, proof-reading is acceptable where the rewriting is only for the purpose of clarifying the written English.
When something happens in an exam that shouldn't have done, we call it an 'exam irregularity'. Exams include written and practical exams and class tests.
In traditional exams this could include someone having notes which aren't permitted, copying from another students, trying to see an exam paper before the exam, getting someone else to sit the exam for you (or sitting it for someone else), or causing a disturbance in an exam.
In online exams and assessments (including 'take home exams'), it could include discussing the questions or answers with other students, taking screenshots of questions, working with other students to write or draft your answers, copying or submitting someone else's work, or getting someone else to sit the exam for you.
Find out more about guidance for traditional exams and online exams and assessments.