Harvard (author-date)

The Harvard (author-date) system is comprised of 2 elements: an in-text citation and a bibliography at the end of the document. In the text of an assignment ideas taken from other people are indicated by placing the author's surname and the date of publication in brackets, for example (Joyner, 2013). The bibliography at the end of the document then lists the references in alphabetical order by author's surname.

Citing in-text

Reference list and bibliography

Harvard Quick Referencing Guide (PDF - 197KB)

  • This is a quick guide to the Harvard (author-date) referencing style. It contains only the most commonly used sources along with information on how to reference using this style, and with examples of how to reference in-text and using the reference list and bibliography.

Harvard Referencing Handbook (Word - 134KB)

  • This is the much longer handbook for the Harvard (author-date) referencing style. It contains over 150 source types, along with examples of how to reference in-text and using the reference list and bibliography. This handbook allows you to effectively create your own Guide to this style, taking out the sources you will definitely never use and leaving you with a more substantial Guide than the aforementioned Quick Guide. Note: this handbook is extensive, and at nearly 100 pages long it would be unwise to print it all in full. 

 

NOTE: Some of the examples used within this guide have been invented by Library Services staff members. Don’t be too alarmed if you click on a URL and it does not take you to the correct website!  

Style guides

A-G    H-N    O-T    U-Z

 

A

Act of Parliament (pre-1963)

In-text citation:

With the Act of Supremacy 1534 (26 Hen. 8, c. 1)...

Reference list:

Act of Supremacy 1534 (26 Hen. 8, c. 1). The Statutes (1950) 3rd edn. London: HMSO.

 

Short title of Act and year (in italics)

Regnal year, name of sovereign and chapter number (in round brackets)

Title of collection (in italics)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Edition (only include edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Act of Parliament (post-1963)

In-text citation:

In chapter 7 of recent social care legislation (Health and Social Care Act 2012)...

Reference list: 

Health and Social Care Act 2012, c. 7. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2012/7/contents/enacted (Accessed: 23 August 2012).

OR if you use the pdf version:

  • Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2012/7/pdfs/ukpga_20120007_en.pdf (Accessed: 23 August 2012).

Use the short title of an Act, with the year in which it was enacted. Most Acts and parts of Acts are now available and viewed online, so reference the website where you located the Act.

As the date appears in the title of the Acts, there is no need to repeat the date in round brackets after the title.

If you are referencing legislation from more than one country (jurisdiction), include the country (jurisdiction) in round brackets after the title of the legislation.

 

Title of Act including year and chapter number (in italics)

Country/jurisdiction (only if referencing more than one country's legislation)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Advertisements

In-text citation:

The advertisement by British Telecom (2012)…

Reference list:

British Telecom (2012) Office relocation gremlins [Advertisement on ITV3 Television]. 19 November.

 

Author/Organisation

Year (in round brackets)

Title of advert/brief description of advert (in italics)

[Advertisement on (insert channel name)]

Date viewed.

Ancient texts

In-text citation:

The epic tale by Homer (1997) …

Reference list:

Homer (1997) The Iliad. Translated by J. Davies. Introduction and notes by D. Wright. London: Dover Publications.

 

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Translated by (if relevant)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Series and volume number (where relevant)

 

If citing an ancient text that existed before the invention of printing, reference it as a manuscript or reference the published (and translated) edition you have read.

Anthologies

In-text citation:

In their collection of poems, Mead and Tranter (1991)…

Reference list:

Mead, C. and Tranter, J. (eds) (1991) The Penguin Book of Modern Australian Poetry. London: Bloodaxe Books.

 

Editor/compiler of anthology (surname followed by initials)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Place of publication: publisher

Atlases

In-text citation:

As illustrated in the text (Oxford School Atlas, 2012, p. 37)…

Reference list:

Oxford School Atlas (2012) 3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Series and volume number (where relevant)

Audiobooks

In-text citation:

Fry (2004) was emphatic in his description of the beast.

Reference list:

Fry, S. (2004) The Hippopotamus. Available at: http://www.audiobookstore.com/uk/ (Downloaded: 19 March 2013).

 

Author/editor

Year of publication/release (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Narrated by (if required)

Available at: URL

(Downloaded: date)

Back to the top

B

Bible

In-text citation:

The Beatitudes (Matthew 5:3-12)…

Reference list:

Matthew 5:3-12, Holy Bible: King James Version.

 

Book of the Bible

Chapter: verse

Holy Bible (not in italics)

Version of the Holy Bible

Bibliographies

In-text citation:

Lifeson (1981) noted the key research…

Reference list:

Lifeson, A. (1981) Select bibliography of Canadian autobiographies. Toronto: University of Toronto, School of Librarianship.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Series and volume number (where relevant)

Bills from House of Commons and Lords

In-text citation:

It is clear that the Green Belt Bill (Parliament, House of Commons, 1999) is inadequate.

Reference list:

Parliament, House of Commons (1999) Green Belt Bill (Bills 1999-2000 9). London: The Stationary Office.

 

Parliament. House of ...

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Bill number (in brackets)

Place of publication: publisher

Birth, marriage, and death certificates

In-text citation:

Jayne was born in Pontefract (‘Jayne Seaman’, 1966)…

Reference list:

‘Jayne Seaman’ (1966) Certified copy of birth certificate for Jayne Seaman, 20 December 1966. Application number 5001977/D. Pontefract Register Office.

 

Name of person (in single quotation marks)

Year of event (in round brackets)

Certified copy of ... certificate for ... (in italics)

Full name of person (forenames, surname) (in italics)

Day/month/year of event (in italics)

Application number from certificate

Location of Register Office

OR if you retrieved the certificate online, after application number from certificate, add:

Year of last update (in round brackets)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Blogs

In-text citation:

No evidence was suggested (Davidson, 2013) in the wake of the bombings.

Reference list:

Davidson, A. (2013) ‘The Saudi Marathon Man’, The New Yorker, 16 April. Available at: http://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/the-saudi-marathon-man (Accessed: 22 June 2015).

 

Author of message

Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

Title of message (in single quotation marks)

Title of internet site (in italics)

Day/month of posted message

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

 

Blogs (weblogs) are produced by individuals and organisations to provide updates on issues of interest or concern. Beware that, as blogs are someone's opinions, they may not provide objective, reasoned discussion of an issue. Use blogs in conjunction with reputable sources. Note that due to the informality of the internet, many authors give first names or aliases. Use the name they have used in your reference.

Book (printed, with one author)

In-text citation:

According to Guy (2001, p. 37), the Zulus faced many grave dangers when confronting the British…

Reference list:

Guy, J. (2001) The view across the river: Harriette Colenso and the Zulu struggle against imperialism. Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Series and volume number (where relevant)

Book (printed, two or three authors)

In-text citation:

Banerjee and Watson (2011, p. 87) suggested…

Reference list:

Banerjee, A. and Watson, T.F. (2011) Pickard’s manual of operative dentistry. 9th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Series and volume number (where relevant)

Book (printed, more than three authors)

In-text citation:

This was proved by Dym et al. (2009)…

Reference list:

Dym, C.L., Little, P., Orwin, E.J., and Spjut, R.E. (2009) Engineering design: a project-based introduction. 3rd edn. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Series and volume number (where relevant)

Book (printed, with an editor)

In-text citation:

This was clearly shown in Al-Sabbagh (2015).

Reference list:

Al-Sabbagh, M. (ed.) (2015) Complications in implant dentistry. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier. Series: Dental clinics of North America; v. 59, no. 1.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Series and volume number (where relevant)

Book (printed, with authors and editors)

In-text citation:

Lucas (2004) remarks that…

Reference list:

Lucas, G. (2004) The wonders of the Universe. 2nd edn. Edited by Frederick Jones, James Smith and Tony Bradley. London: Smiths.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Series and volume number (where relevant)

Book (printed, with no author)

In-text citation:

It is maintained that medicine has greatly improved (Medicine in old age, 1985, p. 74)…

Reference list:

Medicine in old age (1985) 2nd edn. London: British Medical Association.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Series and volume number (where relevant)

Book (in a digital repository)

In-text citation:

Several PhD candidates gave useful advice (Davids and Wright, 1999).

Reference list:

Davids, E. and Wright, I. (1999) Doing referencing. Birmingham: Reference-works.

 

Reference books and journal articles in repositories should be referenced as you would for the corresponding print versions.

Book illustrations, figures, diagrams, logos and tables

 

In-text citation:

Jones’ painting illustrated his immense skill (Bevin, 1997, pp. 77-78).

Reference list:

Bevin, A. (1997) Lost Welsh Treasures. London: Davies Publishers, pp. 77-78, illus.

 

Author of book

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Place of publication: publisher

Page reference of illustration and so on

illus./fig./diagram/logo/table

British standards

In-text citation:

Attic conversions are subject to strict controls (British Standards Institution, 1998).

Reference list:

British Standards Institution (1998) BS5678-9.8: Structural use of timber: ceiling binders. Available at: http://www.standardsuk.com/ (Accessed: 5 June 2014).

 

Name of authorising organisation

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Number and title of standard (in italics)

Place of publication: publisher

OR if viewed online:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Back to the top

C

Cartoons

In-text citation:         

Joe Bloggs (2013) highlighted the issue…

Reference list:

Bloggs, J. (2013) ‘The key issue’ [Cartoon]. The Times, 20 January. Available at: http://www.times.co.uk/world/cartoon/2013/jan/20/bloggs (Accessed: 25 July 2015).

 

Artist

Date (if available)

Title of cartoon (in single quotation marks)

[Cartoon]

Title of publication (in italics)

Day and month

OR if seen online add:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

CD-ROM

In-text citation:

The music industry has expanded greatly, and the ‘Now That’s What I Call Music’ series has proved this (Now That’s What I Call Music, 2015)…

Reference list:

Now that’s what I call music 91 (2015) [CD-ROM]. Now. Available: EMI Group Limited.

 

Title of publication (in italics)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

[CD-ROM]

Producer (where identifiable)

Available: publisher/distributor

Censuses

In-text citation:

Mark Jones moved to York in the 1950s (‘Mark Jones’, 1956).

Reference list:

‘Mark Jones’ (1956) Census return for Leeds Road, Bishopthorpe, York subdistrict, North Yorkshire. Public Record Office: PRO YO9/3765, folio 89, p. 8 (1956). Available at: http://www.ancestry.co.uk (Accessed: 23 June 2015).

 

Name of person (in single quotation marks)

Year of census (in round brackets)

Census return for ... (in italics)

Street, place, county (in italics)

Registration subdistrict (in italics)

Public Record Office:

Piece number, folio number, page number

OR if you retrieved the certificate online, add:

Year of last update (in round brackets)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Chapter in an edited book

In-text citation:

The view proposed by Franklin (2012, p. 88)…

 

Reference list:

Franklin, A.W. (2012) ‘Management of the problem’, in Smith, S.M. (ed.) The maltreatment of children. Lancaster: MTP, pp. 83-95.

 

Author of the chapter/section
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title of chapter/section
‘in’ plus author/editor of book
Place of publication: publisher
Page reference

Clip art

In-text citation:

The image of the dinosaur (Dinosaur, no date)…

Reference list:

Dinosaur (no date). Available at: http://www.clipart.co.uk/cgibin/dinosaur (Accessed: 17 June 2015).

 

Producer

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of clip art (in italics)

Available at: URL

(Accessed/Downloaded: date)

 

If using clip art images from online collections, use the details you are given to take the reader to the relevant piece of artwork. On occasions, you may need to reference clipart that you have found through social media sites like Pinterest or Tumblr, or that you have viewed directly on Flickr. Do not be confused: you simply take the reader to where you viewed the image.

For images that you download onto e-devices, and to which you still have access, you should replace accessed date with downloaded date.

Cochrane Library Review

In-text citation:

McDonald et al. (2014) or (McDonald et al., 2014)

Reference list:

McDonald, S., Page, M. J., Beringer, K., Wasiak, J. and Sprowson, A. (2014) Preoperative education for hip or knee replacement. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 5. CD003526

 

Author(s), editor(s) or corporate author. Use family name, followed by author's initial(s).

The Year of publication (in brackets).

The title and any subtitle.

Database name, which must be in italics.

Issue number (not including the long DOI number).

Report Number (CD....)

Collected works

In-text citation:

His collected works (Lee, 1976-1990) explain…

Reference list:

Lee, G. (ed.) (1976-1990) Rush: The Early Years (30 vols). Toronto: Toronto Press.

 

Author/editor

Year(s) of publication of collection (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Volumes (in round brackets)

Place of publication: publisher

Comics

In-text citation:

Dennis the Menace is still going strong (‘The wrath of Gnasher’, 2015).

Reference list:

‘The wrath of Gnasher’ (2015) The Beano, 25 July, pp. 40-42.

 

Author (where available)

Title of comic strip (in single quotation marks)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of comic (in italics)

Day and month, page

OR if seen online add:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Command papers

In-text citation:

Useful advice (Lord Chancellor’s Department, 2000) includes…

Reference list:

Lord Chancellor’s Department (2000) Government policy on referencing. London: The Stationery Office (Cm 4517).

 

Name of committee or Royal Commission

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Place of publication: publisher

Paper number (in brackets)

OR if viewed online:

Paper number (in round brackets after title)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Company annual reports

In-text citation:

The company expanded massively during the first half of the year (BSkyB Ltd, 2012).

Reference list:

BSkyB Ltd. (2012) Annual Report 2012. Available at: http://annualreview2012.sky.com (Accessed: 9 January 2013).

 

Author or organisation

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of report (in italics)

Place of publication: publisher

OR if accessed on the internet:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Computer games

In-text citation:

Games such as Rome: Total War (The Creative Assembly, 2004)…

Reference list:

The Creative Assembly (2004) Rome: Total War [Computer game]. Available at http://rome-total-war.en.softonic.com/ (Downloaded: 18 June 2015).

 

Author (if given)

Date (if given)

Title of program (in italics and capitalise initial letters)

[Computer game]

Availability, that is, distributor, address, order number (if given)

OR if downloaded from the internet:

URL

(Downloaded: date)

Computer programmes

In-text citation:

Games such as Rome: Total War (The Creative Assembly, 2004)…

Reference list:

The Creative Assembly (2004) Rome: Total War [Computer game]. Available at: http://rome-total-war.en.softonic.com/ (Downloaded: 18 June 2015).

 

Author (if given)

Date (if given)

Title of program (in italics and capitalise initial letters)

[Computer game]

Availability, that is, distributor, address, order number (if given)

OR if downloaded from the internet:

URL

(Downloaded: date)

Concerts

In-text citation:

Rush (2015) wowed the audience…

Reference list:

Rush (2015) [Bishopthorpe Social Club. 29 March].

 

Composer

Year of performance (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Performed by ... conducted by ...

Location. Date seen (in square brackets)

Conference proceedings (full)

In-text citation:

The conference (Institute for Large Businesses, 1999)…

Reference list:

Institute for Large Businesses (1999) Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)

Location and date of conference

Place of publication: publisher

Conference papers (individual)

In-text citation:

Jones (1999) explained…

Reference list:

Jones, D. (1999) ‘Developing big business’, Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses.

 

Author of paper

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of paper (in single quotation marks)

Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)

Location and date of conference

Place of publication: publisher

Page references for the paper

Conference papers (in digital repositories)

In-text citation:

Jones (2003) revoked the theory…

Reference list:

Jones, S. (2003) ‘Is there a correct way to reference?’ Workshop on referencing in universities, Main Library, University of Birmingham, UK, 30 March to 2 April 2003.

 

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of paper (in single quotation marks)

Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)

Organisation or company (if stated)

Location and date of conference

Conference proceedings (papers published on the internet)

 

In-text citation:

Jones (1999) explained…

Reference list:

Jones, D. (1999) ‘Developing big business’, Large firms policy and research conference. University of Birmingham, 18-19 December. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses. Available at: http://www.bigbusinesses.co.uk/jonesd (Accessed: 19 January 2014).

 

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of paper (in single quotation marks)

Title of conference: subtitle (in italics)

Location and date of conference

Publisher

Available at: URL (or doi if available)

(Accessed: date) (not required when doi used)

Confidential information

In-text citation:

The records they produced (Placement hospital, 2014)…

Reference list:

[Placement hospital] (2014) [Placement hospital] examination criteria for patients with dementia. London: [Placement hospital].

 

Anonymised institution/agency (in square brackets)

Year produced (in round brackets)

Anonymised title (in italics) (use square brackets for the anonymised part)

Location

Anonymised producer (in square brackets)

 

In many cases you will need to anonymise the person or institution involved. In medical situations, for example, you may use terms such as 'Subject 1', 'Patient X' or 'Baby J' instead of real names; or 'Placement school', 'Placement hospital' or 'Placement agency' instead of actual institutions.

D

Dictionary

 In-text citation:

Acapnia is "the condition of not having enough carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues" (Dictionary of medical terms, 2005, p.3).

Reference list:

Dictionary of medical terms (2005) 4th edn. London: A & C Black.

 Dictionary, electronic

Note that the definition required may be one of several definitions, as with the following OED example:  here, the in-text citation includes ‘II 7 a’ which refers to the different group and sub-group for this example – ‘II 7 a’ may be optional, particularly if a direct quotation is used  as follows.

 

In-text citation:

 One of the OED definitions is:

 

The action or process of thinking carefully or deeply about a particular subject, typically involving influence from one's past life and experiences; contemplation, deep or serious thought or consideration, esp. of a spiritual nature. (OED, 2016, II 7 a)

Reference List:

 

Oxford English Dictionary (2016). reflection, n. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/160921?redirectedFrom=reflection#eid  (Accessed: 25 Nov 2016)

 

Author/editor (if no author use title in italics)

Title (in italics)

Year of pubication (in round brackets)

Entry/dictionary word in italics

Place of publication:

Publisher

Available at:

(Accessed date:)

Displays

In-text citation:

It is obvious (Paintings of John Doe, 2012) that…

Reference list:

Paintings of John Doe (2012) Display board at Alex Davids Art Gallery exhibition, Pontefract, 28 April 2015.

 

Title (in italics)

Year of production (if available)

Display board at

Name of venue, city

Date observed

DVD-ROM

In-text citation:

Spielberg (Saving Private Ryan, 1998) clearly suggests…

Reference list:

Saving Private Ryan (1998) (DVD). Steven Spielberg (director). Available: Paramount Pictures.

 

Title of film (in italics)

Year of distribution (in round brackets)

Directed by

[DVD] or [Blu-ray]

Place of distribution: distribution company

E

E-Book

In-text citation:

In his analysis, McClellan (2008)…

Reference list:

McClellan, M.B. (2008) Evidence-based medicine and the changing nature of health care. Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press.

OR

Beneath the city’s façade of glamour and success, tension was building (Hislop, 2014, loc 324).

Hislop, V. (2014) The sunrise. Available at http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindlestore (Downloaded: 17 June 2015).

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Place of publication: Publisher

Electronic discussion groups and bulletin boards

 

In-text citation:

This was discussed by Jameson (2014)…

Reference list:

Jameson, A. (2014) ‘International queries’, British Business Schools Librarians Group discussion list, 13 March. Available email: lisbusinessschools@gmail.com.

 

Author of message

Year of message (in round brackets)

Subject of the message (in single quotation marks)

Discussion group or bulletin board (in italics)

Date posted: day/month

Available email: email address

Electronic Journals

In recent years the majority of journal articles have become available in electronic format.  When referencing an article, print or electronic, you need to make sure that there is enough bibliographic information for the article to be located, other elements, such as [online], database title and URL, do not need to be included. If there is a digital object identifier (doi), the doi can be included after the page numbers, for example

Reference list:

Sjogren, P., Kullberg, E., Hoogstraate, J., Johansson, O., Herbst, B. and Forsell, M. (2010) ‘Evaluation of dental hygiene education for nursing home staff’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66 (2), pp. 345-349. doi: 10.1111/j.1365.2648.2009.05181.x.

Journal articles using article numbers 

Some publishers only provides an article number, issue numbers and page numbers are omitted.  To reference this type of article use the following format:

Kanda, G.S., Ravelli, L., Lowe, B., Egger, W. and Keeble, D.J. (2016) 'Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study of Kapton thin foils', Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 49, 025305 (3pp). doi: 10.1088/0022-3727/49/2/025305

Above is an example of referencing an article with an article number, the number 0253305 is the article number and the number of page is in brackets.

Author (surname followed by initials)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of article (in single quotation marks)

Title of journal (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)

Volume if given

Article Number

Number of pages in the article (in round brackets)

doi (if available)

European Union publications

In-text citation:

The predicted migration of labour (European Commission, 2007)…

Reference list:

European Commission (2007) Making globalisation profitable. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

 

Name of EU institution (for example, Council of the European Union, European Commission)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Place of publication: publisher

Exhibitions

In-text citation:

The acclaimed exhibition in London is one to behold (Pre-Raphaelites: Victorian Avant-Garde, 2012)

Reference list:

Pre-Raphaelites: Victorian Avant-Garde (2012) [Exhibition]. Tate Modern, London. 12 September 2012-13 January 2013.

 

Title of exhibition (in italics)

Year (in round brackets)

[Exhibition]

Location

Date(s) of exhibition

F

Facebook

In-text citation:

The University of Birmingham is soon to have a new library (University of Birmingham, 2015).

Reference list:

University of Birmingham(2015) 9 June. Available at http://www.facebook.com (Accessed: 18 June 2015).

 

Author

Year that the page was published/last updated (in round brackets)

Title of page (in italics) (unless it is the same as the Author)

Day/month of posted message

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

 

Note that as social networking sites require registration and then acceptance by other members, it is suggested that the main web address be used. You may wish to include a copy of the member-to-member discussion you are referring to as an appendix to your work, so that readers without access to the original can read it.

Also note that if the author of the page is the same as the title of the page, then you only need to include the author at the beginning of the reference – there is no need to repeat it further on in the same reference. 

Financial reports from online databases

In-text citation:

BSkyB’s profit margin rose by over 7 per cent in the financial year 2011-2012 (Bureau van Dijk, 2013).

Reference list:

Bureau van Dijk (2013) ‘BSkyB plc company report’. Available at: http://fame.bvdep.com/bskyb (Accessed: 8 January 2013).

 

Publishing organisation

Year of publication/last updated (in round brackets)

Title of extract (in single quotation marks)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Back to the top

G

Graffiti

In-text citation:

The graffiti (Jimmy no!, 2015) demonstrated…

Reference list:

Jimmy no! (2015) [Graffiti] 15 West Street, York. 23 June 2015.

 

Title or description (with graffitist's tag, if present) (in italics)

Year (in round brackets)

[Graffiti]

Location

Date viewed

Graphs

In-text citation:

The effects of the atoms (Gray, 2009, p. 87)…

Reference list:

Gray, A. (2009) How to reference scientific papers. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 87, graph.

 

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Place of publication: publisher

Page number or figure number for graph

Graph

H

Hansard

In-text citation:

Dr Sugar expressed his views quite clearly (HC Deb 20 January 2009).

Reference list:

HC Deb 20 January 2009, vol 500, col 1990. Available at: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/hcdeb1990 (Accessed: 19 August 2010).

 

Abbreviation of House and Deb (for Debates)

Date of debate

Volume number

Column number

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

 

Hansard is the official record of debates and speeches given in Parliament, as well as written answers to questions and written statements by ministers. A fully searchable version of Hansard from 1988 for the Commons and from 1995 for the Lords is available online athttp://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/hansard/(Accessed: 18 April 2013). For more information on the use of Hansard, see Factsheet G17: The Official Report (2010) produced by the House of Commons Information Office. Available at:http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-information-office/g17.pdf (Accessed: 18 April 2013). We suggest adding the URL for the debate you are citing so that your reader can locate the precise section.

Historical books in online collections

In-text citation:

James’ measured plans (1654)…

Reference list:

James, P. (1654) Ruins of the palace at Thermopylae. London: Printed for the author.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of publication (in italics)

Place of publication and printing statement

 

If you are reading a scanned version of the printed book, complete with publication information and page numbers, reference in the same manner as the print book. Some early printed books do not have a publisher as they were privately printed. Record the information given in the book in your reference.

House of Commons and House of Lords Papers

 

In-text citation:

Parliamentary reports for the year included renewable energy (Parliament. House of Lords, 2004).

Reference list:

Parliament. House of Lords (2004) Electricity from renewables: the first report. (HL 2003-2004 (19)). London: The Stationary Office.

 

Parliament. House of ...

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Paper number (in round brackets). For House of Lords papers, the paper number is also in round brackets to distinguish it from identical House of Commons paper numbers (see example below)

Place of publication: publisher

Back to the top

I

Inscription (on a building)

In-text citation:

The exterior inscription by Stevens (2005)…

Reference list:

Stevens, G. (2005) Inscription on English Development Centre, Jubbergate, York. (Viewed: 17 March 2008).

 

Author (if known); if not, use first three words of inscription

Year of inscription (in round brackets)

Inscription on ... (in italics)

Location

Date viewed (in round brackets)

Inscription (on a monument)

In-text citation:

The gravestone of the man (‘James Smith’, 2014) showed him to be the man he truly was.

Reference list:

‘James Smith’ (2014) [Monument inscription] St Andrews Churchyard, Bishopthorpe, York (Viewed: 22 June 2015).

 

Name of deceased (in single quotation marks)

Year of death/event (in round brackets)

[Monument inscription]

Location

Date viewed (in round brackets)



Inscriptions on gravestones and memorials are, in many instances, the only detailed record of a person's existence, circumstances and relationships, apart from basic information given in birth, marriage and death certificates and the census. Referencing this information can be difficult, but (as with printed information) you should aim to provide as much information as possible for another person to locate the gravestone or memorial. In some instances, the plot number of a grave will be obtainable and can be referenced; if not, try to give an indication of the location from a landmark.

Installations

In-text citation:

My house by Jordan Thompson (2009)…

Reference list:

Thompson, J. (2009) My house [Installation]. Tate Modern, London, 4 January 2009.

 

Artist

Year (in round brackets)

Title of installation or exhibit (in italics)

[Installation] or [Exhibit]

Gallery or location

Date viewed

Internal reports

In-text citation:

Recommendations in the report (Hegenbarth, 2014)…

Reference list:

Hegenbarth, L. (2014) Focus group recommendations. Internal LGU report. Unpublished.

 

Author or organisation

Year produced (in round brackets)

Title of report (in italics)

Internal report (including name of institution)

Unpublished

Interview (internet)

In-text citation:

Jones was clearly out of his depth (Jones, 2009).

Reference list:

Jones, K. (2009) Interviewed by Steven Poulter for Newsnight, 7 March. Available at: http://iplayer.co.uk/Newsnight/march7 (Accessed: 17 June 2015).

 

Name of person interviewed

Year of interview (in round brackets)

Title of the interview (if any) (in single quotation marks)

Interview with/interviewed by

Interviewer's name

Title of publication or broadcast (in italics)

Day and month of interview, page numbers (if relevant)

 

If published on the internet add:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Interview (newspaper)

In-text citation:

Jones (2009) believed…

Reference list:

Jones, K. (2009). Interview with Kevin Jones. Interview by Steven Poulter for The Times, 7 July, p. 88.

 

Name of person interviewed

Year of interview (in round brackets)

Title of the interview (if any) (in single quotation marks)

Interview with/interviewed by

Interviewer's name

Title of publication or broadcast (in italics)

Day and month of interview, page numbers (if relevant)

 

If published on the internet add:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Interview (television)

In-text citation:

Jones was clearly out of his depth (Jones, 2009).

Reference list:

Jones, K. (2009) Interviewed by Steven Poulter for Newsnight, BBC Two Television, 5 February.

 

Name of person interviewed

Year of interview (in round brackets)

Title of the interview (if any) (in single quotation marks)

Interview with/interviewed by

Interviewer's name

Title of publication or broadcast (in italics)

Day and month of interview, page numbers (if relevant)

 

If published on the internet add:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Interview (with a film director)

In-text citation:

The directors were incredibly pleased with the outcome (Wachowski, 2003).

Reference list:

Wachowski, L. (2003) ‘Interview with L. Wachowski’. Interviewed by L. Smith. The Matrix Reloaded [DVD]. Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc.

 

Name of person interviewed

Year of interview (in round brackets)

Title of the interview (if any) (in single quotation marks)

Interview with/interviewed by

Interviewer's name

Title of film (in italics)

[DVD] or [Blu-ray]

Place of distribution: distribution company

J

Journal articles

In-text citation:

In their review of the literature (Knapik et al., 2015)…

Reference list:

Knapik, J. J., Cosio-Lima, L. M., and Reynolds, K. L. (2015) ‘Efficacy of functional movement screening for predicting injuries in coast guard cadets’, The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29 (5), pp. 1157-1162.

 

Author (surname followed by initials)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of article (in single quotation marks)

Title of journal (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)

Issue information, that is, volume (unbracketed) and, where applicable, part number, month or season (all in round brackets)

Page reference

doi (if available)

 

Over recent years it has become clear that the referencing of journal articles, whether print or electronic, should be simplified. Students and tutors can access academic journal articles through password-protected institutional databases, but other readers may not have access to these. Therefore, as long as the journal reference provides enough bibliographic information for the article to be located, other elements no longer need to be included, for example [Online], database title and URL. The reader would locate the article using the resources they can access and search.

If you are specifically referencing the abstract of a journal article, your citation would make this clear, for example: The abstract highlights ... (Rodgers and Baker, 2013, p. 34). Note that the reference would follow the same format as for a journal article, as the page reference above would take the reader to the abstract.

Journal articles (accessed via VLE)

In-text citation:

In their review of the literature (Knapik et al., 2015, p. 87)…

Reference list:

Knapik, J. J., Cosio-Lima, L. M., and Reynolds, K. L. (2015) ‘Efficacy of functional movement screening for predicting injuries in coast guard cadets’, The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29 (5), pp. 1157-1162. EDUC 1028: E-learning. Available at: http://intranet.bir.ac.uk (Accessed: 25 June 2015).

 

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of article (in single quotation marks)

Title of journal (in italics)

Volume, issue, page numbers

Module code: module title (in italics)

Available at: URL of VLE

(Accessed: date)

 Journal articles (article number and dois)

Some publishers now use article numbers instead of issue and page numbers.  The reference to the article will state the number of pages in the article.

In-text citation:

Research suggests (Kanda et al., 2016)

Reference list:

Kanda, G.S., Ravelli, L., Lowe, B., Egger, W. and Keeble, D.J. (2016) 'Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study of Kapton thin foils', Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 49, 025305 (3pp). doi: 10.1088/0022-3727/49/2/025305

Above is an example of referencing an article with an article number, the number 0253305 is the article number and the number of page is in brackets.

 

Journal articles (more than three authors)

In-text citation:

Research suggests (Darlow et al., 2013)

If there are four or more authors cite the first name listed in the source followed by et al.

All authors'/editors' names would be listed in your reference, no matter how many there are, as shown below.

Reference List :

Darlow, B., Dowell, A., Baxter, G.D., Mathieson, F., Perry, M. and Dean, S, (2013) 'The enduring impact of what clinicians say to people with low back pain', Annals of Family Medicine, 11 (6), pp.527-534


 Authors

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of article (in single quotation marks)

Title of journal (in italics and capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)

Volume number

Issue number (in brackets)

Page numbers of article preceded by p. for one page, pp. if multiple pages

doi: if available

Journal articles (pre-published)

In-text citation:

Several scientists have encountered a problem in this area (Jones, Kree and Rigby, 2014).

Reference list:

Jones, J., Kree, J. and Rigby, P. (2014) ‘Aerobic capacity’. To be published in Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research [Preprint]. Available at: http://journals.lww.com/jscr/Abstract/2015 (Accessed: 23 June 2015).

 

Author

Year (in round brackets)

Title of article (in single quotation marks)

To be published in (if this is stated)

Title of journal (in italics and capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)

Volume and issue numbers (if stated)

[Preprint]

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Journal articles (pre-published, in online or digital repositories)

 

In-text citation:

Several scientists have encountered a problem in this area (Jones, Kree and Rigby, 2014).

Reference list:

Jones, J., Kree, J. and Rigby, P. (2014) ‘Aerobic capacity’. To be published in Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research [Preprint]. Available at: http://journals.lww.com/jscr/Abstract/2015 (Accessed: 23 June 2015).

 

Author

Year (in round brackets)

Title of article (in single quotation marks)

To be published in (if this is stated)

Title of journal (in italics and capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)

Volume and issue numbers (if stated)

[Preprint]

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Back to the top

K

L

Law commission reports and consultation papers

 

In-text citation:

The report (Crime Commission, 2012)…

Reference list:

Crime Commission (2012) Prosecution Appeals. (Law Com No 567, Cm 8906). London: The Stationery Office.

 

Law Commission

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of report or consultation paper (in italics)

Number of report or consultation paper, Command Paper number (if given) (in round brackets)

Place of publication: publisher

OR if viewed online:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Leaflets

In-text citation:

Barclays Bank plc (no date) provides insurance for many families.

Reference list:

Barclays Bank plc (no date) Mortgages. [Leaflet obtained in York branch], 8 June 2015.

 

Author (individual or corporate)

Date (if available)

Title (in italics)

[Leaflet obtained ... ]

Date obtained

 Legal Cases

There are distinct guidelines for the citing of legal sources such as court cases. These are set out in OSCOLA and these guidelines do not conform to the usual author-date format.  Square brackets are used around a date if there is no volume number, but round brackets are used if there is a volume number.

Citation Order: 

Name of parties involved in the case (in italics)

Date - in square brackets if no volume number, in round brackets if there is a volume number

Volume Number (if used), abbreviation for name of report and first page of report

Example of in-text citation:

The cases of R v. Charnley (Kenneth Desmond) [2007] and R v. Derek Roy Taylor (1977) shows ...

Reference list:

R v. Charnley (Kenneth Desmond) [2007] EWCA Crim 1354

Note: date in square brackets in accordance with the convention used for legal material.

R v. Derek Roy Taylor (1977) 64 Cr App R 182

Note: Date in round brackets because there is also a volume number.

 

Legislation from UK devolved assemblies

In-text citation:

In the legislation (Budget (Wales) Act 2008)

Reference list:

Budget (Wales) Act 2008 (asp 2). Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2008/2/contents (Accessed: 19 March 2009).

 

Title of Act including year (in italics)

asp number (in round brackets)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Lines in a play

In-text citation:

‘I prithee do not mock me fellow student’ (Shakespeare, 1998, 1.2:177).

Reference list:

Shakespeare, W. (1998) Hamlet. Edited by Kevin Bryant. London: Penguin. 1.2:177.

 

Author (surname followed by initials)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition information

Place of publication: publisher

Act. Scene: line

M

Magazine articles

In-text citation:

Stevens discusses this (2011, p. 11)…

Reference list:

Stevens, N. (2011) ‘Circular Motion’, Physics Monthly (November), pp. 8-15.

 

Author (surname followed by initials)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of article (in single quotation marks)

Title of journal (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)

Issue information, that is, volume (unbracketed) and, where applicable, part number, month or season (all in round brackets)

Page reference

doi (if available)

Manuscripts

In-text citation:

The evidence (Simpson, 1865, 6/57/896) points to…

Reference list:

Simpson, J. (1865) Letter to Jayne Beech, 15 December. James Simpson Collection, Birmingham University Library.

 

Author

Year (in round brackets)

Title of manuscript (in italics)

Date (if available)

Name of collection containing manuscript and reference number

Location of manuscript in archive or repository

Map (geological survey)

In-text citation:

The landscape has changed quite considerably (Ordnance Survey, 1988).

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey (1988) Castleford (solid), sheet 16, 1:50 000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey. (Geological Survey of Great Britain [England and Wales]).

 

Corporate author and publisher

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Sheet number, scale

Place of publication: publisher

Series (in round brackets)

Map (online)

In-text citation:

The social club is close to the playing fields (Ordnance Survey, 2010).

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey (2010) ‘Ferry Lane’, Tile sp15nw, 1:10 000. Available at: http://edina.ac.iuk/digimap/ (Accessed: 8 June 2014).

 

Map publisher

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of map section (in single quotation marks)

Sheet number or tile, scale

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Map (ordnance survey)

In-text citation:

Archaeological sites are clearly shown (Ordnance Survey, 2002)…

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey (2002) York, sheet 56, 1:50 000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey (Landranger series).

 

Ordnance Survey

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Sheet number, scale

Place of publication: publisher

Series (in round brackets)

Market research reports from online databases

 

In-text citation:

Mintel Oxygen (2014) noticed problems in the market…

Reference list:

Mintel Oxygen (2014) ‘Van insurance Wales’. Available at: http://academic.minteloxygen.com (Accessed: 18 July 2014).

 

Author or organisation

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of report (in single quotation marks)

Place of publication: publisher

OR if accessed on the internet:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Mathematical equations

In-text citation:

James (2006, p. 1889) noted that z>0.

Reference list:

James, J. (2006) ‘Some functional equations’, Advances in Algebra, 315(8), pp. 1880-1899. Available at: http://www.mathematicjournals.co.uk/James (Accessed: 19 January 2015).

 

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of article (in single quotation marks)

Title of journal (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)

Volume, issue, page numbers

Available at: URL (or doi if available)

(Accessed: date) (not required when doi used)

Medical images

n-text citation:

The X-ray (2014) evidently showed…

Reference list:

The femur (2014) [X-ray]. Available at: http://www.anatomy.tv/femur (Accessed: 25 June 2015).

 

Image title (in italics)

Year (in round brackets)

Medium (in square brackets)

Available at: URL

(Accessed/Downloaded: date)

 

Many kinds of medical/anatomical images can be viewed and downloaded from the internet (for example, MRI, PET, CT and ultrasound scans and X-rays) for use in supporting your arguments or demonstrating particular aspects of anatomical or medical information. These would simply be referenced as photographs/images from the internet.

Microform

In-text citation:

Data from Jones (1997)…

Reference list:

Jones, P. (1997) The Jones collection [Microform]. Yorkshire: Jones Physiological Association.

 

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of microform (in italics)

Medium (in square brackets)

Place of publication: publisher

Military records

In-text citation:

Private Hunsley fought valiantly (‘Richard Hunsley VC’, 2014).

Reference list:

‘Richard Hunsley VC’ (1956) Commonwealth War Graves Commission casualty details. Available at: http://www.cwgc.org/search/casualty/hunsleyvc (Accessed: 21 June 2015).

 

Name of person (in single quotation marks)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of publication (in italics)

Publication details

OR if you retrieved the document online, add:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Minutes of meetings

In-text citation:

The library staff committee (2014) suggested…

Reference list:

Library staff committee (2014) ‘Item 4.2: Developing technology’. Minutes of library staff committee meeting 24 January 2014, Main Library, University of Birmingham.

 

Author (individual or group if identified)

Year of meeting (in round brackets)

Item being referenced (in single quotation marks)

Title and date of meeting (in italics)

Organisation

Location of meeting

Mood boards

In-text citation:

The mood board (Smith, 2012)…

Reference list:

Smith, D. (2012) Hello. Available at: http://www.flickr.com/photos/hello/57647 (Accessed: 19 June 2015).

 

Artist (if known, or use title)

Year (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

[Mood board]

Exhibited at

Location and date(s) of exhibition

Dimensions (if relevant and available)

 

If it's an online mood board:

Artist (if known, or use title)

Year (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Available at:

(Accessed: date).

Multi-volume works

In-text citation:

Jones (1999, p. 7) suggests that…

Reference list:

Jones, D. (ed.) (1999) Definitions of life. (6 vols).London: Pirate Publishers.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Volumes (in round brackets)

Place of publication: publisher

Back to the top

N

Newspaper article

In-text citation:

“Businesses and organisations around York are showing their support” (Lewis, 2015, p. 6).

Reference list:

Lewis, S. (2015) ‘Rainbow support for York pride’, The Press, York, 18 June.

 

Author/byline

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of article (in single quotation marks)

Title of newspaper (in italics – capitalise first letter of each word in title, except for linking words such as and, of, the, for)

Edition if required (in round brackets)

Day and month

Page reference

 

Just like journal articles, over recent years it has become clear that the referencing of newspaper articles, whether print or electronic, could be simplified. Students and tutors can access newspaper articles through password-protected institutional databases, but other readers may not have access to these. Therefore, as long as the newspaper reference provides enough bibliographic information for the article to be located, other elements no longer need to be included, for example [Online] and database title. The reader would locate the newspaper article using the format/resource they can access and search themselves.

Newspaper article (online)

In-text citation:

The White Rose of Yorkshire is still flying high in the cricket.6

Footnote:

Graham Hardcastle, ‘The White Rose of Yorkshire is still Flying High in the Cricket’, The Press, York (June 18, 2015) <http://www.yorkpress.co.uk/sport/13339665.Gale_gears_up_for_pivotal_spell_for_Yorkshire/> [accessed 19 June 2015].

Bibliography:

Hardcastle, Graham, ‘The White Rose of Yorkshire is still Flying High in the Cricket’, The Press, York (June 18, 2015) <http://www.yorkpress.co.uk/sport/13339665.Gale_gears_up_for_pivotal_spell_for_Yorkshire/> [accessed 19 June 2015].

 

Author
Title of article (in single quotation marks)
Newspaper
Date published
URL
Accessed

NICE/NHS Guidelines

In-text citation: (NICE/NHS summary)

It is clear that (Hill, 2010)…

Reference List: (NICE/NHS summary)

Hill, J. (2010) 'Reducing the risk of venous thromboembolism (deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) in patients admitted to hospital: summary of the NICE guideline', Heart, 96,
pp. 879-882. doi:10.1136/hrt.2010.198275

 

In-text citation: (NICE/NHS guidance entry)

It is clear that (NICE [CG50], 2007)…

Reference list: (NICE/NHS guidance entry)

NICE. (2007) Acutely ill patients in hospital: recognition of and response to acute illness in adults in hospital. NICE guidelines [CG50]. Available at: http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg50 (Accessed: 5 May 2015)

 

Author/editor
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title of guideline
Title of Journal (if relevant)
Volume
Page reference
doi (if available)

Non-English works

In-text citation:

Napoleon was a natural leader (Dell’Isola, 1934).

Reference list:

Dell’Isola, M. (1934) Napoléon. Paris. R. Helleu.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Place of publication: publisher

O

P

Packaging

In-text citation:

The packaging (Mars Incorporated, 2013) made it clear.

Reference list:

Mars Incorporated (2013) Mars Bar [Wrapper].

 

Manufacturer

Year seen

Product name (in italics)

Medium (in square brackets)

OR if seen online, add:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Paintings/drawings

In-text citation:

Works by Dali (1958) are fascinating.

Reference list:

Dali, S. (1958) Madonna [Oil on canvas]. Tate Gallery, London.

 

Artist

Year (if available)

Title of the work (in italics)

Medium (in square brackets)

Institution or collection that houses the work, followed by the city

OR if seen online:

Available at:

(Accessed: date)

Pamphlet

In-text citation:

The pamphlet (Royal College of Physicians, 2008)…

Reference list:

Royal College of Physicians, British Geriatrics Society, British Pain Society. (2008) The assessment of pain in younger people: local guidelines. London: RCP.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Series and volume number (where relevant)

Parish registers

In-text citation:

Alex and Alice’s wedding (‘Alex Jones and Alice Roberts’, 1934)…

Reference list:

‘Alex Jones and Alice Roberts’ (1934) Marriage of Alex Jones and Alice Roberts, 5 May 1934. St Andrew’s Church Bishopthorpe, York marriage register 1900-1950 (2009). Available at: http://www.genuki.org.uk/bishopthorpe (Accessed: 29 March 2015).

 

Name of person (in single quotation marks)

Year of event (in round brackets)

Baptism, marriage or burial of ...

Full name of person (forenames, surname)

Day/month/year of event

Title of register (in italics)

OR if you retrieved the certificate online, add:

Year of last update (in round brackets)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Patents

In-text citation:

Fredericks (2012) proposed a solution.

Reference list:

Fredericks, F. (2012) Vinyl cleaning tool. UK Intellectual Property Office Patent no. GB2468906. Available at: http://www.ipo.gov.uk/p/find-publication (Accessed: 5 June 2013).

 

Inventor(s)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Authorising organisation

Patent number

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Personal communications

In-text citation:

This was disputed by Smith (2012).

Reference list:

Smith, D. (2012) Conversation with Steven Jones, 13 August.

Smith, D. (2012) Letter to Steven Jones, 23 January.

Smith, D. (2012) Email to Steven Jones, 14 August.

Smith, D. (2012) Telephone conversation with Steven Jones, 25 December.

Smith, D. (2012) Skype conversation with Steven Jones, 21 June.

Smith, D. (2012) Text message to Steven Jones, 14 June.

Smith, D. (2012) Fax to Steven Jones, 17 December.

 

Sender/speaker/author

Year of communication (in round brackets)

Medium of communication

Receiver of communication

Day/month of communication

Phonecasts

In-text citation:

Zuckerberg created his website in 2004 (A conversation with Mark Zuckerberg, 2007).

Reference list:

A conversation with Mark Zuckerberg (2007) [Phonecast]. Available at: http://www.phonecasting.com/Channel/View/Channel.aspx (Accessed: 27 June 2014).

 

Title of phonecast (in italics)

Year of production (in round brackets)

[Phonecast]

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

 

Phonecasts are audio or video programmes transmitted to a user's mobile phone. The user dials a number to access the programme. Alternatively, phonecasters can broadcast by using their telephones in place of microphones. Although phone calls are personal communications, it is possible to reference phonecasts if the access details are available in a publication or web page.

Photographic prints or slides

In-text citation:

It is ever so clear (Tebow, 2009) that…

Reference list:

Tebow, T. (2009) York at night [Photograph]. York: Here and There Publishing.

 

Photographer

Year (in round brackets)

Title of photograph (in italics)

[Photograph]

Place of publication: publisher (if available)

 

Students often become confused when referencing works of art they have photographed. They are often unsure whether to reference themselves as the image maker or to reference the work itself. The answer is clear: you reference what it is you are referring to (ie your photograph or the work of art). Thus, if you wish to discuss the way you photographed a sculpture by Rodin, you would reference yourself, following the examples below (omitting, if necessary, place of publication and publisher).

For images that you download onto e-devices, and to which you still have access, you should replace accessed date with downloaded date.

Photographs from the internet

In-text citation:

The great photograph (Jarvis, 2015)…

Reference list:

Jarvis, C. (2015) Blue. Available at: http://www.chasejarvis.com/#s=10&mi=2&pt=1&pi=10000&p=8&a=0&at=0 (Accessed 18 June 2015).

 

Photographer

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of photograph (in italics)

Available at: URL

(Accessed/downloaded: date)

 

For images that you download onto e-devices, and to which you still have access, you should replace accessed date with downloaded date.

Plays

In-text citation:

It was a spectacular feat of engineering (Romeo and Juliet, 2013).

Reference list:

Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare (2013). Directed by David Smith [Theatre Royal, York. 18 January].

 

Title (in italics)

by author

Year of performance (in round brackets)

Directed by

Location. Date seen (in square brackets)

Podcasts

In-text citation:

It was clear that George Osborne was well out of his depth (Yesterday in Parliament, 2015)…

Reference list:

Yesterday in Parliament (2015) 18th June 15 [Podcast]. 18 June. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02tys33 (Accessed: 19 June 2015).

 

Author/presenter

Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

Title of podcast (in italics)

[Podcast]

Day/month of posted message

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

 

Although podcasts can be downloaded onto portable devices, you should reference where it was published or displayed for download rather than trying to give 'my iPod' as a source.

Postcards

In-text citation:

The shore was beautiful (Terrence, no date)…

Reference list:

Terrence, T. (no date) Tintagel [Postcard]. England: Cornwall Gallery.

 

Artist (if available)

Year (in round brackets if available)

Title (in italics)

[Postcard]

Place of publication: publisher

Posters

In-text citation:

The image (Severn, no date)…

Reference list:

Severn, J. (no date) Le Joue [Poster]. 84cm x48cm/33” x 19”.

 

Artist (if known, or use title)

Year (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

[Poster]

Exhibited at

Location and date(s) of exhibition

Dimensions (if relevant and available)

PowerPoint presentations

In-text citation:

The great presentation (Whittingham, 2014)…

Reference list:

Whittingham, D. (2014) ‘History of warfare’ [PowerPoint presentation]. L252: War studies. Available at: https://intranet.bham.ac.uk (Accessed: 7 June 2014).

 

Author or tutor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of presentation (in single quotation marks)

[PowerPoint presentation]

Module code: module title (in italics)

Available at: URL of VLE

(Accessed: date)

Press releases and announcements

In-text citation:

This development (Google Inc., 2015)…

Reference list:

Google Inc. (2015) Google Maps changes forever [Press release]. 29 December. Available at: http://www.google.com/intl/en/news (Accessed: 30 December 2015).

 

Author/organisation

Year issued (in round brackets)

Title of communication (in italics)

[Press release]

Day/month

OR if available online, add:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

 Public Inquiry

Public or independent inquiries may be published by order of Parliament and are given a Parliamentary or Command Paper number.

In-text citation:

The Francis (2013) inquiry ...

Reference list:

Francis, R. (2013) Report of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust public inquiry. (HC 898). London: The Stationery Office.

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of inquiry (in italics)

Parliamentary or Command Paper number (in found brackets)

Place of publication: publisher

OR if available online, add:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Publications of international organizations

In-text citation:

Reports by the International Chamber of Commerce, Commission for Air Transport (2010)…

Reference list:

International Chamber of Commerce, Commission for Air Transport (2010) The need for greater liberalization. Available at: http://www.iccwbo.org/liberalization (Accessed: 8 February, 2014).

 

Name of organisation or institution

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Place of publication: publisher

OR if viewed online:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

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Q

Qur'an

In-text citation:

‘Nothing is hidden from Allah, whether on Earth or in Heaven’ (Qur’an 14:38).

Reference list:

Qur’an 14:38 (2013) translated by Abdullah Yusuf Ali. Ware, Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions Limited.

 

Qur'an (not in italics)

Surah (or chapter): verse

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Translated by ...

Place of publication: publisher

R

Radio and internet radio

In-text citation:

According to the latest research (The Sun, 2015)…

Reference list:

The Sun (2015) BBC Radio 4, 1 January.

The Sun (2015) BBC Radio 4, 1 January. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b048nlfb#auto (Accessed: 23 January 2015).

 

Title of programme (in italics)

Year of transmission (in round brackets)

Name of channel

Date of transmission (day/month)

 

The internet has radically altered access to audio and visual sources and created the means for anyone to produce and distribute material. You may also view or hear programmes through catch-up services such as BBC iPlayerITV Player4 on Demand(4oD), Demand 5 and Sky Go on a variety of devices. You do not need to specify the catch-up service nor the device. The nature of the material and the facts necessary to identify or retrieve it should dictate the substance of your in-text citations and reference list.

 

Title of programme (in italics)

Year of original transmission (in round brackets)

Name of channel

Day and month of original transmission

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Reprinted work

In-text citation:

One of the very first historians (Seaman, 1945)…

Reference list:

Seaman, D. (1945) The king of the truth. Reprint, London: B.Y. Jove, 1998.

 

Author/editor

Year of original publication (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Reprint

Place of reprint publication: reprint publisher

Year of reprint

Requests for Comments

In-text citation:

A number of comments were made relating to the document (Hoff, 1995).

Reference list:

Hoff, D. (1995) The Baywatch years. Nos: FYA 19 and RFC 5879. Available at: http://tools.ietf.org/hoff (Accessed: 20 October 2009).

 

Author/editor

Year (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Document number

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Research reports

In-text citation:

The minimum cost of living in Yorkshire is £15,000 (Friedland, 2009, p. 65)

Reference list:

Friedland, B. (2009) A minimum income standard for Yorkshire: what people think. Available at: http://www.jrf.org.uk/yorkshireresearch (Accessed: 19 June 2015).

 

Author or organisation

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of report (in italics)

Place of publication: publisher

OR if accessed on the internet:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Review (book)

In-text citation:

Stevens (2010) thought the book…

Reference list:

Stevens, H. (2010) ‘Biology of birds’. Review of The birds and the bees, by David Bills. Journal of the History of Biology, 50(2), pp. 190-92.

 

Name of the reviewer (if indicated)

Year of publication of the review (in round brackets)

Title of the review (in single quotation marks)

Review of ... (title of work reviewed – in italics)

Author of work being reviewed

Publication details (title in italics)

Review (drama)

In-text citation:

One reviewer (Smith, 2007, p. 6) wrote…

Reference list:

Smith, U. (2007) ‘The big finale’. Review of Heaven help me, by T. Jones. Theatre Royal, York. The Times (Review section), 8 July.

 

Name of the reviewer (if indicated)

Year of publication of the review (in round brackets)

Title of the review (in single quotation marks)

Review of ... (title of work reviewed – in italics)

Director of work being reviewed

Publication details (title in italics)

Review (film)

In-text citation:

One reviewer (Smith, 2007, p. 6) wrote…

Reference list:

Smith, U. (2007) ‘The big finale’. Review of Heaven help me, by T. Jones. Theatre Royal, York. The Times (Review section), 8 July.

 

Name of the reviewer (if indicated)

Year of publication of the review (in round brackets)

Title of the review (in single quotation marks)

Review of ... (title of work reviewed – in italics)

Director of work being reviewed

Publication details (title in italics)

Review (musical performance)

In-text citation:

Jubb (2015) thought the performance was incredible.

Reference list:

Jubb, A. (2015) ‘Absolute magic’. Review of Clockwork Angels Tour, by Rush, York, UK. The Press (Review section), 29 March, p. 91.

 

Name of the reviewer (if indicated)

Year of publication of the review (in round brackets)

Title of the review (in single quotation marks)

Review of ... (title of work reviewed – in italics)

Composer of work being reviewed

Publication details (title in italics)

RSS feeds

In-text citation:

The library extension will be completed in 2016 (University of Birmingham Library, 2015).

Reference list:

University of Birmingham Library (2015) Library opening [RSS] 26 January. Available at: https://www.bham.ac.uk/feeds/news/178 (Accessed: 18 February 2015).

 

Author/organisation

Year issued (in round brackets)

Title of communication (in italics)

[RSS]

Day/month

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

S

Scientific datasets

In-text citation:

The data (Shevchenko, 2014)…

Reference list:

Shevchenko, A. (2014) ‘Na levels holdings’. Available at: http://physics.nist.gov/ajh5 (Accessed: 9 January 2015).

 

Author

Date (in round brackets)

Title of data (in single quotation marks)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Scientific or technical reports

In-text citation:

Jones has found (1997, p. 76)…

Reference list:

Jones, B., (1997) Methods in tumour research. National Agency for Tumour Research, volume. 7.

 

Author(s)

Title of report

Publishing organisation. Place of publication

Date of publication

Report series and number

Screencasts

In-text citation:

An online video showed this (Learning Rails the zombie way, no date).

Reference list:

Learning Rails the zombie way (no date) [Screencast]. Available at: http://www.rubyonrails.org (Accessed: 12 January 2014).

 

Title of screencast (in italics)

Year of production (in round brackets)

[Screencast]

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Statutory Instruments

In-text citation:

The Terrorism Order 2004

Reference list:

Terrorism Order 2004 (SI 2004/3354). Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2004/3354/contents/made (Accessed: 19 January 2013).

 

Name/title including year (in italics)

SI year and number (in round brackets)

Available at: URL

(Accessed date)

Student's own work

In-text citation:

The topic of the essay (Jubb, 2014)…

Reference list:

Jubb, A. (2014) ‘Did the Allies win the battle of the Atlantic because of superior air power?’, L252: War Studies. University of Birmingham. Unpublished essay.

 

Student name

Year of submission (in round brackets)

Title of essay/assignment (in single quotation marks)

Module code: module title (in italics)

Institution

Unpublished essay/assignment

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T

Television programmes viewed on the internet

 

In-text citation:

Napoleon was incredibly important, as seen in the Napoleon series shown on BBC Two (‘Episode 2’, 2015)…

Reference list:

‘Episode 2’ (2015) Napoleon, BBC Two, 17 June. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b05zq7xf/napoleon-episode-2 (Accessed: 18 June 2015).

 

Title of episode (in single quotation marks) if known; if not, use title of programme

Year of broadcast (in round brackets)

Title of programme/series (in italics)

Series and episode numbers (if known)

Name of channel

Broadcast date (day/month)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Theses and dissertations

In-text citation:

Research by Gregory (1970) suggests that…

Reference list:

Gregory, S. (1970) English military intervention in the Dutch revolt. B.A. Thesis. University of Birmingham. Available at: http://findit.bham.ac.uk/ (Accessed: 18 June 2015).

 

Author

Year of submission (in round brackets)

Title of thesis (in italics)

Degree statement

Degree-awarding body

If viewed online:

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Torah

In-text citation:

It is said that ‘a righteous man falls down seven times and gets up’ (Proverbs 24:16)…

Reference list:

Torah. Proverbs 24:16.

 

Torah (not in italics)

Book

Chapter: verse

Translated works

In-text citation:

Ludwig (2005) feared the worst for Napoleon.

Reference list:

Ludwig, E. (2005) Napoleon. Translated by E. Paul and C. Paul. London: Book Jungle.

 

Author/editor

Year of translated publication (in round brackets)

Title of book (in italics)

Translated by ...

Place of publication: reprint publisher

Tutor's handouts

In-text citation:

The tutor’s handout (Whittingham, 2015)…

Reference list:

Whittingham, D. (2015) ‘Zulu warriors’, L252: War Studies. University of Birmingham. Unpublished.

 

Tutor

Year of distribution (in round brackets)

Title of handout (in single quotation marks)

Module code: module title (in italics)

Institution

Unpublished

 

Tutor's lecture notes in VLE/Intranet

In-text citation:

The tutor’s work (Whittingham, 2015)…

Reference list:

Whittingham, D. (2015) ‘Zulu warriors’. L252: War Studies. Available at: http://intranet.bham.ac.uk (Accessed: 21 June 2015).

 

Author or tutor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of item (in single quotation marks)

Module code: module title (in italics)

Available at: URL of VLE

(Accessed: date)

Twitter

In-text citation:

The University of Birmingham (University of Birmingham, 2015) are well accomplished in using social media…

Reference list:

University of Birmingham. (2015) 13 June. Available at https://twitter.com/unibirmingham/status/609691694762627072 (Accessed: 17 June 2015).

 

Author

Year that the page was last updated (in round brackets)

Day/month of posted message

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

U

V

Vidcasts

In-text citation:

The vodcast (Butler and O’Rourke, 2014) explained how Bob Saget was a hero to them.

Reference list:

Butler, B. and O’Rourke, A. (2014) Bob Saget: Norm Macdonald Live: Video Podcast Network. [Vodcast]. Available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=peDLWyHegfI (Accessed: 22 June 2015).

 

Author

Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

Title of vodcast (in italics)

[Vodcast]

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

 

Video podcasts can be viewed on the internet or downloaded for later viewing. So that readers can locate the original, cite and reference where you obtained the vodcast.

Videos or films on YouTube

In-text citation:

The video (University of Birmingham, 2010)…

Reference list:

The University of Birmingham (2010) The University of Birmingham experience. Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLxV5L6IaFA (Accessed: 18 June 2015).

 

Name of person posting video

Year video posted (in round brackets)

Title of film or programme (in italics)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

W

War memorials

In-text citation:

The memorial (Derek Boorman, 1995)…

Reference list:

Derek Boorman (1995) For Your Tomorrow, York Minster, Deangate, York, UK. (Viewed: 22 June 2014).

 

Name of architect (if known); if not, use name of memorial

Date of construction (in round brackets)

Name of memorial (in italics)

Location (and/or GPS coordinates, if available)

Date viewed (in round brackets)

Web page (individual author)

In-text citation:

Snow (2015) stated that ‘millions of soldiers died on the Western Front’ (Snow, 2015).

Reference list:

Snow, D. (2015) How did so many soldiers survive the trenches? Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/z3kgjxs (Accessed: 18 July 2015).

 

Author

Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

Title of web page (in italics)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Web page (organisation as the author)

In-text citation:

During WW1 (BBC News, 2014)…

Reference list:

BBC News (2014) ‘Lights out’ ends day of WW1 centenary commemorations. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-28632223 (Accessed: 17 October 2012).

 

Organisation

Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

Title of web page (in italics)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Web page (no authors or titles)

In-text citation:

Thunderstorms have become increasingly common (http://www.blitzortung.org/Webpages/index.php?lang=en&page=1, 2015).

Reference list:

(2015) Available at: http://www.blitzortung.org/Webpages/index.php?lang=en&page=1 (Accessed: 18 June 2015).

 

Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Web page (no dates)

In-text citation:

He was seen by many to be a great man (BBC History, http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wellington_duke_of.shtml, no date).

Reference list:

BBC History (no date) Duke of Wellington (1769-1852). Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wellington_duke_of.shtml (Accessed: 18 June 2015).

 

Author

(no date)

Title of web page (in italics)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Web page (no authors)

In-text citation:

Napoleon was a great leader6

Footnote:

6. Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) (2015), <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bonaparte_napoleon.shtml> [accessed 18 July, 2015].

Bibliography:

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) (2015), <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bonaparte_napoleon.shtml> [accessed 18 July, 2015].

 

Title of web page (in italics)
Year of publication
URL
Accessed

Wikis

In-text citation:

Rush originated from the Willowdale neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario (‘Rush (band)’, 2015).

Reference list:

‘Rush (band)’ (2015) Wikipedia. Available at https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Rush_(band) (Accessed: 18 June 2015).

 

Title of article (in single quotation marks)

Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

Title of wiki site (in italics)

Available at: URL

(Accessed: date)

Wills

In-text citation:

They inherited a great wealth (Will of Jamie Blackburn of York Abbey, North Yorkshire, 1800).

Reference list:

Will of Jamie Blackburn of York Abbey, North Yorkshire (1800). The National Archives: Public Record Office. Catalogue reference: PROB/15/1980.

 

Title of document (in italics)

Year of will (in round brackets)

Name of archive or repository

Reference number

 

X

 

Y

 

Z

    

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A-G    H-N    O-T    U-Z