APA Referencing A-Z

Skip to: A-G    H-M    N-T     U-Z

 

A

Advertisements

In-text citation:

The advertisement by British Telecom (2012)…

Reference list:

British Telecom. (2012, November 19). Office relocation gremlins (advertisement on ITV3 Television).

 

Author/Organisation
Date viewed (and year)
Title of advert/brief description of advert (in italics)
Media type

Ancient texts

In-text citation:

The epic tale by Homer (1997)…

Reference list:

Homer. (1997). The Iliad. In J. Davies (trans). London: Dover Publications.

 

Author
Year of publication
Title of book
Translator (if relevant)
Place of publication: publisher

Anthologies

In-text citation:

In the work (Mead & Tranter, 1991)…

Reference list:

Mead, C. & Tranter, J. (Eds.). (1991). The Penguin Book of Modern Australian Poetry. London: Bloodaxe Books.

 

Authors/editors
Year of publication
Title of anthology (in italics)
Place of publication
Publisher

Atlas

In-text citation:

As illustrated in the text (Wiegand, 2012, p. 37)…

Reference list:

Wiegand, P. (2012). Oxford School Atlas.3rd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

Author/editor
Year of publication
Title of atlas (in italics)
Edition (if relevant)
Place of publication: publisher

Audiobooks

In-text citation:

Fry (2004) was emphatic in his description of the beast.

Reference list:

Fry, S. (2004). The Hippopotamus [Audiobook].

 

Author/Editor
Year of publication
Title of audiobook
Media type

B

Bible

In-text citation:

It was found in the Beatitudes (Matthew 5:3-12)…

Reference list:

King James Bible. Matthew 5:3-12.

 

Source type
Book of the Bible
Chapter: verse 

Bibliographies

In-text citation:

Lifeson (1981) noted the key research…

Reference list:

Lifeson, A. (1981). Select bibliographies of Canadian autobiographies. Toronto: University of Toronto, School of Librarianship.

 

Author/editor
Year of publication
Title of bibliography
Publication details

Bills from House of Commons and Lords

In-text citation:

It is clear that the Green Belt Bill (House of Commons, 1999)…

Reference list:

House of Commons. (1999). Green Belt Bill (Bills 1999-2000 9). London: The Stationary Office.

 

House of…
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Bill number
Publication details

Birth, marriage, and death certificates

In-text citation:

Jayne was born in Pontefract (‘Jayne Seaman’, 1966)…

Reference list:

‘Jayne Seaman’. (1966). Certified copy of birth certificate for Jayne Seaman, 20 December 1966 (application number 5001977/D). Pontefract Register Office, UK.

 

Name of person (in single quotation marks)
Year of event Certified copy of… certificate for… (in italics)
Full name of person (in italics)
Date of event (in italics)
Application number from certificate
Location of Register Office
IF ONLINE:
Retrieved from… URL

Blog

In-text citation:

No evidence was suggested (Davidson, 2013) in the wake of the bombings.

Reference list:

Davidson, A. (2013, April 16). The Saudi marathon man [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/the-saudi-marathon-man

 

Author (surname followed by initials)

Year and date of post (in round brackets)

Title of post

[Blog post]

Retrieved from URL

Book (printed, one author)

In-text citation:

According to the British consulate (Guy, 2001, p. 37)…

Reference list:

Guy, J. (2001). The view across the river: Harriette Colenso and the Zulu struggle against imperialism. Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Book (printed, two or three authors)

In-text citation:

Research by Banerjee and Watson (2011) suggests…

Reference list:

Banerjee, A., & Watson, T.F. (2011). Pickard’s manual of operative dentistry (9th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Book (printed, three to seven authors)

In-text citation:

This was proved in ‘Engineering design’ (Dym, Little, Orwin & Spjut, 2009).

Reference list:

Dym, C.L., Little, P., Orwin, E.J., & Spjut, R.E. (2009). Engineering design: a project-based introduction. (3rd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.  

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Book (printed, eight or more authors)

List the first six authors then an ellipsis (i.e. three dots) then the last author in the reference.

In-text citation:

The evidence was clear (Standing et al., 2004)...

Reference list:

Standing, S., Ellis, H., Healy, J. C., Johanson, D., Williams, A., Collins, P., . . . Shah, P. (Eds.). (2004). Gray's anatomy: The anatomical basis of clinical practice (39th ed.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingston.

 

Authors/Editors
Title of book
Edition (in round brackets)
Place of publication: publisher

Book (printed, with an editor)

In-text citation:

This was clearly shown by Al-Sabbagh (2015)…

Reference list:

Al-Sabbagh, M. (ed.). (2015). Complications in implant dentistry. Series: Dental clinics of North America. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier.

 

Editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Book (printed, with authors and editors)

Lucas (2004) highlights that…

Reference list:

Lucas, G. (2004). The wonders of the Universe. F. Jones, J. Smith & T. Bradley (eds.). London: Smiths.

 

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Editors

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Book (printed, with no author)

In-text citation:

It was clear (Medicine in old age, 1985, p. 74)…

Reference list:

Medicine in old age. (1985). (2nd ed.). London: British Medical Association.

 

Title (in italics)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher

Book (in a digital repository)

In-text citation:

Several PhD candidates gave useful advice (Davids & Wright, 1999).

Reference list:

Davids, E. & Wright, I. (1999) Doing referencing. Birmingham: Reference-works.

 

Author(s)
Year of publication
Title of book (in italics)
Publication details
Digital repository name

Book (with a series)

In-text citation:

The evidence was clear (Al-Sabbagh, 2015)...

Reference list:

Al-Sabbagh, M. (ed.). Complications in implant dentistry. Dental clinics of North America. (2015). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. 

 

Author/editor
(ed.) if relevant
Title of book
Title of series
Year of publication
Place of publication: publisher

Book illustrations, figures, diagrams, logos and tables

 

In-text citation:

Jones’ painting illustrated his immense skill (Bevin, 1997).

Reference list:

Bevin, A. (1997). Lost Welsh Treasures. London, UK: Davies Publishers. (Original work published 1785).

 

Author
Year of publication
Title of book (in italics)
Place of publication: publisher
Original work published…(if relevant)

British Standards

In-text citation:

Attic conversions are subject to strict controls (British Standards Institution, 1998)…

Reference list:

British Standards Institution. (1998).  BS5678-9.8: structural use of timber: ceiling binders. Retrieved from http://www.standardsuk.com/

 

Name of authorising organisation
Year of publication
Number and title of standard (in italics)
Retrieved from…

Back to the top

C

Cartoons

In-text citation:         

Joe Bloggs (2013) highlighted the issue…

Reference list:

Bloggs, J. (2013, January 20) ‘The key issue’ [Cartoon]. The Times. Retrieved from http://www.times.co.uk/world/cartoon/2013/jan/20/bloggs

 

Artist
Date published
Title of cartoon (in single quotation marks)
Media type
Newspaper/Comic title (in italics)
Publication details (if necessary)
Retrieved from…

CD-ROM

In-text citation:

The music industry has expanded greatly, and the ‘Now That’s What I Call Music’ series has proved this (Now that’s what I call music 91, 2015).

Reference list:

Various artists. (2015). Now that’s what I call music 91 [CD-ROM]. London: EMI Group Limited. 

 

Artist
Year of production
Title of CD (in italics)
Media type
Production details

Censuses

In-text citation:

Mark Jones moved to York in the 1950s (‘Mark Jones’, 1956)…

Reference list:

‘Mark Jones’. Census return for Leeds Road, Bishopthorpe, York subdistrict, North Yorkshire. Public Record Office: PRO YO9/3765, folio 89, p. 8. Retrieved from http://www.ancestry.co.uk

 

Name of person (in single quotation marks)

Year of census

Census return for ... (in italics)

Street, place, county (in italics)

Registration subdistrict (in italics)

Public Record Office:

Piece number, folio number, page number
OR if you retrieved the certificate online, add:

Retrieved from… URL

Chapter in a book (online)

In-text citation:

It was clear (Serviss, 1911) that...

Reference list:

Serviss, G. P. (1911). A trip of terror. A Columbus of space. Retrieved from http://books.google.com

Bellow, S. (1999). A silver dish. In J. Updike & K. Kenison (Eds.), The best american short stories of the century. Retrieved from http://books.google.com

 

Author(s)
(Year Published).
Section title.
In F. M. Last (Ed.), 
Book/anthology [E-reader version, if used] (pp. Pages).
doi:# or Retrieved from URL

Chapter in a book (print)

In-text citation:

It was evident (Serviss, 1911) that...

Reference list:

Serviss, G. P. (1911). A trip of terror. In A Columbus of space (pp. 17-32). New York, NY: Appleton.

Hemingway, E. (1999). The killers. In J. Updike & K. Kenison (Eds.), The best American short stories of the century (pp.78-80). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.

 

Author(s)
(Year Published).
Title of chapter In F. M. Last Editor (Ed.),
Title of book/anthology (pp. Pages).
Publisher City, State: Publisher.

Clip art

In-text citation:

The image of the dinosaur (Dinosaur, no date)…

Reference list:

Dinosaur (clip art). (no date). Retrieved from http://www.clipart.co.uk/cgibin/dinosaur

 

Title of clip art (in italics)
Media type
Year of publication (if relevant)
Retrieved from…

Cochrane Library review

In-text citation:

It was clear (Singh, Kour, & Mahesh, 2012)...

Reference list:

Singh, J., Kour, K., & Jayaram Mahesh, B. (2012). Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012(1), 1–101. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007967.pub2

 

Authors/editors
Year of publication

Title of review
Title of database (in italics)
Volume (in round brackets)
Page range
doi

Collected works

In-text citation:

His collected works (Lee, 1976-1990) explain…

Reference list:

Lee, G. (Ed.). (1976-1990). Rush: The early years (Vols. 1-30). Toronto: Toronto Press.

 

Author
Date
Title (in italics)
Volumes (if relevant)
Place of publication
Publisher

Comics

In-text citation:

Dennis the Menace is still going strong (The Beano, 2015).

Reference list:

The Beano. (2015, July 25). The wrath of Gnasher (pp. 40-42). London: Beano Publishing.

 

Artist/Comic
Date published
Title of comic (in single quotation marks)
Page reference (if relevant)
Publication details

Command papers

In-text citation:

Useful advice (Lord Chancellor’s Department, 2000)…

Reference list:

Lord Chancellor’s Department. (2000). Government policy on referencing (Cm 4517). London: The Stationery Office.

 

Name of committee or Royal Commission
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Page number
Publication details

Company annual reports

In-text citation:

The company expanded massively during the first half of the year (BSkyB Ltd, 2012).

Reference list:

BSkyB Ltd. (2012). Annual Report 2012. Retrieved from http://annualreview2012.sky.com

 

Author or organisation
Year of publication
Title of report (in italics)
Retrieved from…

Computer games

In-text citation:

Games such as Rome: Total War (The Creative Assembly, 2004)…

Reference list:

The Creative Assembly. (2004). Rome: Total war [Computer video game]. London: The Game Company.

 

Author
Year of production
Title of game
Media type
Production details

Computer programmes

In-text citation:

It has been found that (Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, 1994)…

Reference list:

Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994). Epi Info (Version 6) [Computer program]. Retrieved from http://www.cdcp.com/download.html

 

Author
Year of production
Title of programme
Media type
Retrieved from…

Concerts

In-text citation:

Rush (2015) truly wowed the audience…

Reference list:

Rush. (2015, March 19). Greatest Hits Tour. York, UK: Bishopthorpe Social Club.

 

Artist
Date of concert
Title of concert (in italics)
Location of concert

Conference papers (in digital repositories)

In-text citation:

Jones (2003) revoked the theory…

Reference list:

Jones, S. (2003) ‘Is there a correct way to reference?’ Workshop on referencing in universities, Main Library, University of Birmingham, UK, 30 March - 2 April 2003.

 

Author
Year of publication
Title of paper (in single quotation marks)
Title of conference (in italics)
Organisation or company
Location and date of conference

Conference papers (individual)

In-text citation:

Jones (1999) explained…

Reference list:

Jones D. (1999). ‘Developing big business’. In Large firms policy and research conference (University of Birmingham, 1999 December 18-19). Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses.

 

Author of paper
Year of publication
Title of paper (in single quotation marks)
Title of conference (in italics)
Location and date of conference
Place of publication: publisher

Conference proceedings (full)

In-text citation:

The conference (Institute for Large Businesses, 1999)…

Reference list:

Institute for Large Businesses. (1999). Large firms policy and research conference (University of Birmingham, 1999 December 18-19). Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses.

 

Author/editor
Year of publication
Title of conference (in italics)
Location and date of conference
Place of publication: publisher

Conference proceedings (published on the internet)

 

In-text citation:

Jones (1999) explained…

Reference list:

Jones D. (1999). ‘Developing big business’. In Large firms policy and research conference (University of Birmingham, 1999 December 18-19). Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses. Retrieved from http://www.bigbusinesses.co.uk/jonesd

 

Author
Year of production
Title of paper (single quotation marks)
In title of conference (in italics)
Location and date of conference
Publication details
Retrieved from…

Confidential information

In-text citation:

The records they produced Placement hospital, 2014)…

Reference list:

[Placement hospital]. (2014). [Placement hospital] examination criteria for patients with dementia. London: [placement hospital].

 

Anonymised institution/agency (in square brackets)
Year of report
Anonymised title (in italics)
Location
Publisher is simply the anonymised institution/agency (again, with square brackets)

D

Displays

In-text citation:

It is obvious (Paintings of John Doe, 2012)…

Reference list:

Paintings of John Doe (exhibition).(2012). Pontefract, UK: Display board at Alex Davids Art Gallery.

 

Title of exhibition (in italics)
Year of exhibition
Location
Display board at…

DVD-ROM

In-text citation:

It was clear (Spielberg, 1998)…

Reference list:

Spielberg, S. (1998). Saving Private Ryan [DVD]. Hollywood: Paramount Pictures.

 

Director
Year of production
Title of DVD
Media type
Production details

Back to the top

E

E-Book (from the internet)

In-text citation:

Wear (2000) suggests…

Reference list:

Wear, A. (2000). Knowledge and practice in English medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/bham/detail.action?docID=5004608

 

Author/editor

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Publication details

Retrieved from URL or doi:

E-book (from an Ebrary)

In-text citation:

Wear (2000) suggests...

Reference list:

Wear, A. (2000). Knowledge and practice in English medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from University of Birmingham Ebrary database.

Author/editor

 

Year of publication (in round brackets)

 

Title (in italics)

Publication details

Retrieved from (name of database)

Electronic discussion groups and bulletin boards

 

In-text citation:

This was discussed by Jameson (2014)…

Reference list:

Jameson, A. (2014). ‘International queries. British Business Schools Librarians Group discussion list (2014, March 13). Email retrieved from lisbusinessschools@gmail.com

 

Author of message
Year of message
Subject of the message (in single quotation marks)
Discussion group or bulletin board (in italics)
Date posted
Email retrieved from… 

Encyclopaedia (entry)

In-text citation:

It is obvious that (Crystal, 2007, p. 45)…

Reference list:

Crystal, D. (2007). Medical science. In The Penguin Concise Encyclopaedia. (3rd edn.). London: Penguin.

 

Author
Year of publication
Entry title
In Encyclopaedia name (in italics)
Edition (if relevant)
Place of publication: publisher

Encyclopaedia (full)

In-text citation:

It is obvious that (Crystal, 2007)…

Reference list:

Crystal, D. (2007). The Penguin Concise Encyclopaedia. (3rd edn.). London: Penguin.

 

Author
Year of publication
Encyclopaedia name (in italics)
Edition (if relevant)
Place of publication: publisher

European Union publications

In-text citation:

The predicted migration of labour (European Commission, 2007)…

Reference list:

European Commission. (2007). Making globalisation profitable. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

 

Name of EU institution
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Place of publication: publisher

Exhibitions

In-text citation:

The acclaimed exhibition is one to behold (Tate Modern, 2012)…

Reference list:

Tate Modern. (2012 September 12-2013 January 13). Pre-Raphaelites: Victorian Avant-Garde. London.

 

Art Gallery title (or similar)
Date of exhibition
Title of exhibition (in italics)
Location

F

Facebook

In-text citation:

It is clear that the campus for 2016 will be a hive of activity (University of Birmingham, 2015).

Reference list:

University of Birmingham. (2015, June 18). New for 2016 on campus will be a fabulous library, filled with new and emerging technologies… [Facebook status update]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/unibirmingham

 

Author (surname followed by initials) and [given name is in square brackets]

Year, month, day (in round brackets)

Title of page

[Facebook status update]

Retrieved from URL

Financial reports from online databases

In-text citation:

BSkyB’s profit margin rose by over 7 per cent in the financial year 2011-2012 (Bureau van Dijk, 2013).

Reference list:

Bureau van Dijk. (2013). BSkyB plc company report. Retrieved from http://fame.bvdep.com/bskyb

 

Publishing organisation
Year of publication
Title of extract (in italics)
Retrieved from…

G

Google+

In-text citation:

It is obvious in this day and age (Guild of Students, 2015) that…

Reference list:          

Guild of Students, University of Birmingham. (2015, June 4). Ready to move out? Drop off your non-perishable food at our collection trolley, in support of Sparkhill food bank. [Google+ post]. Retrieved from https://plus.google.com/+guildofstudents/posts

 

Author
Year and date of publication
Title of page (if not same as author)
Message
Media type
Retrieved from…

Graffiti

In-text citation:

The graffiti, ‘Jimmy no!’ (2015) demonstrated…

Reference list:

Jimmy no! (2015, June 23) (graffiti). York, UK: 15 West Street.

 

Title (or brief description)
Date of graffiti
Media type
Location

Graphs

In-text citation:

The effects of the atoms (Gray, 2009, p. 87).

Reference list:

Gray, A. (2009). How to reference scientific papers (graph). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

 

Author
Year of publication Title of book (in italics)
(graph)
Place of publication: publisher

H

Hansard

In-text citation:

Dr Sugar expressed his views quite clearly (HC Deb, 2009)…

Reference list:

House of Commons. (2009). January 20 Debate (vol 500, col 1990). Retrieved from http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/hcdeb1990

 

House of…
Year of debate
House of … Debate
Date of debate (in italics)
Volume number
Column number
Retrieved from…

Historical books in online collections

In-text citation:

James’ measured plans (1654)…

Reference list:

James, P. (1654). Ruins of the palace at Thermopylae. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com/lib/birmingham (Original work published 1654).

 

Author/editor
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Retrieved from
Original work published…

House of Commons and House of Lords papers

 

In-text citation:

Parliamentary reports for the year included renewable energy (House of Lords, 2004).

Reference list:

House of Lords. (2004). Electricity from renewables: the first report. (HL 2003-2004 (19)). London: The Stationary Office.

 

House of…
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Paper number
Publication details

Back to the top

I

Inscription (on building)

In-text citation:

The exterior inscription by Stevens (2005)…

Reference list:

Stevens, G. (2005). Inscription on English Development Centre. Building inscription, Jubbergate, York, UK.

 

Author
Year of inscription
Inscription on… (in italics)
Media type
Location

Inscription (on monument)

In-text citation:

The gravestone of the man (‘Smith’, 2014)…

Reference list:

‘Smith, James’. (2014). Monument inscription, St Andrew’s Churchyard, Bishopthorpe, York, UK.

 

Name of deceased (in single quotation marks)
Year of production
Media type
Location

Installations

In-text citation:

It was clear (Thompson, 2009) that…

Reference list:

Thompson, J. (2009, January 4). My house. London: Tate Modern.

 

Artist
Date of installation
Title (in italics)
Location

Internal report

In-text citation:

Recommendations in the report (Hegenbarth, 2014)…

Reference list:

Hegenbarth, L. (2014). Focus group recommendations. Internal LGU report: unpublished.

 

Author/organisation
Year of report
Title of report (in italics)
Internal report (include name of institution)
Unpublished

Interview (internet)

In-text citation:

Jones was clearly out of his depth (2009).

Reference list:

Jones, K. (2009). Interview with Kevin Jones (interviewed by Steven Poulter for Newsnight). Retrieved from http://iplayer.co.uk/Newsnight/march7

 

Name of person interviewed
Date of interview
Title of interview (in italics)
Interview by… for…
Production details (if relevant)
Retrieved from…

Interview (newspaper)

In-text citation:

Jones (2009, p. 88) believed…

Reference list:

Jones, K. (2009, July 7). Interview with Kevin Jones (interview by Steven Poulter for The Times).

 

Name of person interviewed
Date of interview
Title of interview (in italics)
Interview by… for…
Page references (if relevant)

Interview (television)

In-text citation:

Jones was clearly out of his depth (2009)…

Reference list:

Jones, K. (2009, February 5). Interview with Kevin Jones (interview by Steven Poulter for Newsnight). London: BBC Two Television.

 

Name of person interviewed
Date of interview
Title of interview (in italics)
Interview by… for…
Production details

Interview (with a film director)

In-text citation:

The directors were incredibly pleased with the outcome (Wachowski, 2003)…

Reference list:

Wachowski, L. (2003). Interview with L. Wachowski (interviewed by Laurence Smith on ‘The Matrix Reloaded’ (DVD)). Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc.

 

Name of person interviewed
Year of interview
Title (in italics)
Interviewed by…
Media type
Production details

J

Journal article

In-text citation:

In their review of the literature (Knapik et al., 2015)…

Reference list:

Knapik, J.J., Cosio-Lima, L.M., & Reynolds, K. L. (2015) Efficacy of functional movement screening for predicting injuries in coast guard cities. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29(5), 1157-1162.

 

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of article

Title of journal (in italics)

Volume number (in italics)

Issue (in round brackets), page numbers

Journal article (accessed via VLE)

Without a DOI (using a URL)

In-text citation:

In their review of the literature (Knapik et al., 2015, p. 87)…

Reference list:

Knapik, J J., Cosio-Lima, L.M., and Reynolds, K.L. (2015) Efficacy of functional movement screening for predicting injuries in coast guard cadets. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29 (5), pp. 1157-1162. EDUC 1028: E-learning. Available at: http://intranet.bir.ac.uk

 

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of article

Title of journal (in italics)

Volume number (in italics)

Issue (in round brackets), page numbers

Available at…

 

With a DOI

In-text citation:

In their review of the literature (Knapik et al., 2015, p. 87)…

Reference list:

Knapik, J J., Cosio-Lima, L.M., and Reynolds, K.L. (2015) Efficacy of functional movement screening for predicting injuries in coast guard cadets. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 29 (5), pp. 1157-1162. EDUC 1028: E-learning. doi: 16310.1186/1471-2474-14-197

 

 

Author

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of article

Title of journal (in italics)

Volume number (in italics)

Issue (in round brackets), page numbers

doi: 

Journal article (pre-published)

In-text citation:

Several scientists have encountered a problem in this area (Jones, Kree & Rigby, 2014).

Reference list:

Jones, J., Kree, J., & Rigby, P. (2014) Aerobic Capacity. Manuscript submitted for publication. 

 

Author (surname followed by initials)

Year of posting (in round brackets)

Title of the article

Journal title (in italics)

Advance online publication

URL or doi of the journal's home page

Journal article (more than three authors)

In-text citation:

Research (Jennings, Merrell, Thompson & Heinrich, 2015) suggests…

Reference list:

Jennings, H.M., Merrell, J., Thompson, J.L., & Heinrich, M. (2015). Food or medicine? Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 167, 97-105.

 

Authors
Year of publication
Title
Journal title
Journal volume, page numbers

K

L

Law commission reports and consultation papers

 

In-text citation:

The report (Crime Commission, 2012)…

Reference list:

Crime Commission. (2012). Prosecution Appeals (Law Com No 567, Cm 8906). London: The Stationery Office.

 

Law commission
Year of publication
Title of report or consultation paper (in italics)
Number of report or consultation paper, Command Paper number (if given)
Publication details

Leaflets

In-text citation:

Barclays Bank plc (no date) provides insurance for many families.

Reference list:

Barclays Bank plc. (no date). Mortgages (leaflet obtained in York branch, 2015).

 

Author
Date viewed
Title (in italics)
Leaflet obtained in…

Legislation from UK devolved assemblies

In-text citation:

In the legislation (Budget (Wales) Act, 2008)…

Reference list:

Budget (Wales) Act (asp 2). (2008). (legislation from Welsh devolved assembly) Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2008/2/contents

 

Title of Act
asp number
Year of publication
Media type
Retrieved from…

Liner notes

In-text citation:

“I lie awake, staring out at the bleakness of Megadon” (Peart, 1976)…

Reference list:

Peart, N. (1976). [Liner notes]. In 2112 [CD]. Toronto: Toronto Sound Studio.

 

Author
Year of production
Media type
In album (in italics)
Media type
Production details

Lines in a play

In-text citation:

‘I prithee do not mock me fellow student’ (Shakespeare, 1998, 1.2:177)…

Reference list:

Shakespeare, W. (1998). Hamlet. In K. Bryant (ed). London: Penguin.

 

Author
Year of publication
Title
Editor
Publication details

M

Magazine article

In-text citation:

Stevens (2011)…

Reference list:

Stevens, N. (2011, November). Circular motion. Physics Monthly, 8-15.

Online article:

Stevens, N. (2011, November). Circular motion. Physics Monthly. Retrieved from http://www.physicsmonthly.com/articles/circularmotion

 

Author
Year and month of publication
Title of article
Title of magazine (in italics)
Page reference
IF ONLINE
Retrieved from…

Manuscript

In-text citation:

The evidence (Simpson, 1865) points to…

Reference list:

Simpson, J. (1865). 6/57/896 [Manuscript]. Birmingham University Library, Birmingham, UK.

 

Author
Year of publication
Location of manuscript in archive or repository
Media type
Name of collection containing manuscript

Map (geological survey)

In-text citation:

The landscape has changed quite considerably (Ordnance Survey, 1988)…

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey. (1988). Castleford (solid (sheet 16, 1:50 000)). Southampton: Ordnance Survey (Geological Survey of Great Britain [England and Wales]).

 

Corporate author and publisher
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Sheet number and scale (in italics)
Publication details
Series

Map (online)

In-text citation:

The social club is close the playing fields (Ordnance Survey, 2010).

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey. (2010). Ferry lane (tile sp15nw, 1:10 000). Retrieved from http://edina.ac.iuk/digimap/

 

Map publisher
Year of publication
Title of map section (in italics)
Tile, scale (in italics)
Retrieved from…

Map (ordnance survey)

In-text citation:

Archaeological sites are clearly shown (Ordnance Survey, 2002)…

Reference list:

Ordnance Survey. (2002). York (sheet 56, 1:50 000). Southampton: Ordnance Survey (Landranger series).

 

Ordnance Survey
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Sheet number and scale (in italics)
Place of publication: publisher
Series

Market research reports from online databases

 

In-text citation:

Mintel Oxygen (2014) noticed problems in the market…

Reference list:

Mintel Oxygen. (2014). Van insurance Wales (market research report). Retrieved from http://academic.minteloxygen.com

 

Author or organisation
Year of report
Title of report (in italics)
Media type
Retrieved from…

Mathematical equation

In-text citation:

James (2006, p. 1889) noted that…

Reference list:

James, J. (2006). ‘Some functional equations’. Advances in Algebra, 315(8): 1880-1899. Retrieved from http://www.mathematicjournals.co.uk/James

 

Author
Year of publication
Title of article (in single quotation marks)
Journal (italics)
Volume, issue and page numbers (if relevant)
Retrieved from…

Medical images

In-text citation:

The X-ray (The femur, 2014)…

Reference list:

The femur. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.anatomy.tv/femur

 

Image title (in italics)
Year of publication
Retrieved from…

Microform

In-text citation:

Data from Jones (1997)…

Reference list:

Jones, P. (1997). The Jones collection (microform). York, UK: Jones Physiological Association.

 

Author
Year of production
Title (in italics)
Media type
Production details

Military records

In-text citation:

Private Hunsley fought valiantly (‘Richard Hunsley VC’, 2014)…

Reference list:

‘Richard Hunsley VC’. (1956). Commonwealth War Graves Commission casualty details. Retrieved from http://www.cwgc.org/search/casualty/hunsleyvc

 

Name of person (in single quotation marks)
Year published
Title of publication (in italics)
Retrieved from…

Minutes of meetings

In-text citation:

The library staff committee (2014)…

Reference list:

Library staff committee. (2014). ‘Item 4.2: developing technology’. In Minutes of library staff committee meeting 24 January 2014. University of Birmingham: Main Library.

 

Author
Year of meeting
Item being referenced (in single quotation marks)
Title (in italics)
Date of meeting (in italics)
Organisation
Location of meeting

Mood boards

In-text citation:

The mood board (Smith, 2012)…

Reference list:

Smith, D. (2012). Hello. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/photos/hello/57647

 

Author
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Retrieved…

Multi-volume works

In-text citation:

Jones (1999, p. 7) was clear in his definition…

Reference list:

Jones, D. (Ed.). (1999). Definitions of life (Vols. 1-6). London: Pirate Publishers. 

 

Author/editor
Year of publication
Title
Number of volumes
Place of publication publisher

Musical score

In-text citation:

‘Something for Nothing’ is a song for the ages (Peart, 1976)…

Reference list:

Peart, N. (1976). Something for nothing. Toronto: Toronto Sound Studios.

 

Author
Year of production
Title of song (in italics)
Production details

N

Newspaper article

In-text citation:

Businesses and organisations around York are showing their support (Lewis, 2015).

Reference list:

Lewis, S. (2015, June 18). Rainbow support for York pride. The Press, York.

 

Author (surname followed by initials)

Year and date of publication (in round brackets)

Title of article

Title of magazine (in italics)

Volume number (in italics) - if available

Issue (in round brackets) - if available

Page numbers

Newspaper article (online)

In-text citation:

The White Rose of Yorkshire is still flying high in the cricket (Hardcastle, 2015).

Reference list:

Hardcastle, G. (2015, June 18). Gale gears up for pivotal spell for Yorkshire. The Press, York. Retrieved from http://www.yorkpress.co.uk/sport/13339665.Gale_gears_up_for_pivotal_spell_for_Yorkshire/

 

Author
Year and date published
Title of article
Newspaper it was published in
Retrieved from…

Non-English works

In-text citation:

Dell’Isola was very clear in her argument (1934).

Reference list:

Dell’Isola, M. (1934). Napoléon. Paris: R. Helleu. 

 

Author
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Place of publication: publisher

Back to the top

O

P

Packaging

In-text citation:

The packaging (Mars Incorporated, 2013)…

Reference list:

Mars Incorporated. (2013). Mars Bar (wrapper).

 

Manufacturer
Year of production
Title (in italics)
Media type

Paintings/drawings

In-text citation:

Works by Dali (1958)…

Reference list:

Dali, S. (1958). Madonna (oil on canvas). London: Tate Gallery.

 

Artist
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Media type
Publication details/location 

Pamphlet

In-text citation:

The pamphlet (Royal College of Physicians, 2008)…

Reference list:

Royal College of Physicians, British Geriatrics Society, British Pain Society. (2008). The assessment of pain in younger people: local guidelines [Pamphlet]. London: RCP.

 

Author
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Media type
Publication details

Parish registers

In-text citation:

Alex and Alice’s wedding (‘Alex Jones and Alice Roberts’, 1934)…

Reference list:

‘Alex Jones and Alice Roberts’. (1934). ‘Marriage of Alex Jones and Alice Roberts, 1934 May 5’. In St Andrew’s Church, Bishopthorpe, York marriage register 1900-1950. Retrieved from http://www.genuki.org.uk/bishopthorpe

 

Name of person/people (in single quotation marks)
Year of publication
Baptism, marriage or burial of ... (in single quotation marks)

Day/month/year of event

Location of parish (in italics)
Title of register/ details (in italics)
Retrieved from…

Patents

In-text citation:

Fredericks (2012) proposed a solution…

Reference list:

Fredericks, F. (2012). Vinyl cleaning tool. In UK Intellectual Property Office Patent no. GB2468906. Retrieved from http://www.ipo.gov.uk/p/find-publication

 

Inventor(s)
Year of publication/invention
Title (in italics)
Authorising organisation
Patent number
Retrieved from…

Personal communications

In-text citation:

This was disputed by Smith (2012).

Reference list:

Smith, D. (2012, August 13). Conversation with Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, January 23). Letter to Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, August 14). Email to Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, December 25). Telephone conversation with Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, June 21). Skype conversation with Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, June 14). Text message to Steven Jones.

Smith, D. (2012, December 17). Fax to Steven Jones.        

 

Sender/speaker/author
Date of communication
Medium of communication
Receiver of communication

Phonecast

In-text citation:

Zuckerberg created his website in 2004 (A conversation with Mark Zuckerberg, 2007)…

Reference list:

A conversation with Mark Zuckerberg (phonecast). (2007). Retrieved from http://www.phonecasting.com/Channel/View/Channel.aspx

 

Title of phonecast (in italics)
Media type
Year of production
Retrieved from…

Photographic prints or slides

In-text citation:

It is ever so clear (Tebow, 2009)…

Reference list:

Tebow, T. (2009). York at night (photograph). York: Here and There Publishing.

 

Photographer
Year of publication
Title of photograph (in italics)
Media type
Publication details

Photographs from the internet

In-text citation:

The great photograph (Jarvis, 2015)…

Reference list:

Jarvis, C. (2015). Blue [Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.chasejarvis.com/#s=10&mi=2&pt=1&pi=10000&p=8&a=0&at=0

 

Photographer (surname followed by initials)

Year of production (in round brackets)

Title of work (in italics)

[Medium]

Retrieved from URL

Plays

In-text citation:

It was a spectacular piece of engineering (Smith, 2013).

Reference list:

Smith, D. (Director). (2013, January 18). Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, Theatre Royal, York.

 

Director
Date of play
Title of play
Location of play

Podcasts

In-text citation:

It was clear that George Osborne was well out of his depth (Smith, 2015).

Reference list:

Smith, J. (Producer). (2015, June 4). Yesterday in Parliament [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes

 

Author/Producer
Year and date of publication
Title (in italics)
Media type
Retrieved from…

Postcards

In-text citation:

The shore was beautiful (Terrence, no date)…

Reference list:

Terrence, T. (no date). Tintagel (postcard). Tintagel, UK: Cornwall Gallery.

 

Artist
Year of publication (if relevant)
Title (in italics)
Media type
Publication details

Posters

In-text citation:

The image (Severn, no date)…

Reference list:

Severn, J. (no date). Le Joue (poster). London: Early Morning Publishers.

 

Artist
Year of publication (if relevant)
Title (in italics)
Media type
Publication details

PowerPoint presentations

In-text citation:

The great presentation (Whittingham, 2014)…

Reference list:

Whittingham, D. (2014). History of warfare (PowerPoint presentation). Retrieved from https://intranet.bham.ac.uk

 

Author/presenter
Year presentation was given
Title of presentation (in italics)
Media type
Module code and module title (if relevant)
Retrieved from…

Press releases and announcements

In-text citation:

This development (Google Inc., 2015)…

Reference list:

Google Inc. (2015, December 29). Google Maps changes forever (press release). Retrieved from http://www.google.com/intl/en/news

 

Author/Organisation
Date issued
Title of communication (in italics)
Media type
Retrieved from…

Publications of international organisations

In-text citation:

Reports (International Chamber of Commerce, 2010)…

Reference list:

International Chamber of Commerce, Commission for Air Transport. (2010). The need for greater liberalization. Retrieved from http://www.iccwbo.org/liberalization

 

Name of organization or institution
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Publication details (if relevant)
Retrieved from…

Back to the top

Q

Qur'an

In-text citation:

‘Nothing is hidden from Allah, whether on Earth or in Heaven’ (Qur’an 14:38).

Reference list:

Qur’an, 14:38: Wordsworth Limited Edition.

 

Source type
Surah (or chapter): verse
Publisher (if relevant)

R

Radio and internet radio

In-text citation:

According to the latest research (In our time, 2015)…

Reference list:

Morris, T. (Producer), & Bragg, M. (Presenter). (2015, January 1). The Sun [Radio series episode]. In In Our Time. London: BBC Radio 4.

 

Producer/author/presenter(s)
Year and date of production
Title of episode
Media type
Series name
Publication details

Reprinted works

In-text citation:

One of the very first historians (Seaman, 1945/1998)…

Reference list:

Seaman, D. (1998). The king of the truth. London: B.Y. Jove. (Original work published 1945).

 

Author
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Publication details
Original work published in…

Requests for Comments

In-text citation:

A number of comments were made relating to the document (Hoff, 1995).

Reference list:

Hoff, D. (1995). The Baywatch years (nos: FYA 19 and RFC 5879). Retrieved from http://tools.ietf.org/hoff

 

Author/editor
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Document number
Media type
Retrieved from…

Research reports

In-text citation:

The minimum cost of living in Yorkshire is £15 000 (Friedland, 2009).

Reference list:

Friedland, B. (2009). A minimum standard for Yorkshire: what people think. Retrieved from http://www.jrf.org.uk/yorkshireresearch

 

Author (surname followed by initials)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title of report (in italics)

Retrieved from URL or doi:

Review (book)

In-text citation:

Stevens (2010) thought that the book…

Reference list:

Stevens, H. (2010). ‘Biology of birds’ (review of ‘the birds and the bees’ by David Bills). In Journal of the History of Biology, 167, 190-192.

 

Name of the reviewer
Year of review
Title of review (in single quotation marks)
Review of… by…
In journal... journal details…

Review (drama)

In-text citation:

One reviewer (Smith, 2007)…

Reference list:

Smith, U. (2007, July 8). The big finale (review of ‘heaven help me’ by Tony Jones). In the ‘review section’ of The Times.

 

Name of the reviewer
Date of review
Title of review (in italics)
Review of… by…
In… (insert newspaper title or similar)

Review (film)

In-text citation:

Barnes (1989) believed it was a classic film…

Reference list:

Barnes, J. (1989, October 9). Citizen Kane (review of ‘Citizen Kane’, directed by Orson Welles). In ‘Empire’ magazine, pp. 25-29.

 

Author of review
Date of review
Title of review (in italics)
Directed by…
In…
Page reference (if relevant)

Review (musical performance)

In-text citation:

Jubb (2015) thought that the performance was incredible.

Reference list:

Jubb, A. (2015, March 29). Absolute magic (review of ‘Clockwork Angels tour’ by Rush, York, UK). In The Press (review section), p. 91.

 

Name of the reviewer
Date of review
Title of review
Review of… by…
Location
Magazine/Newspaper title
Page reference (if relevant). 

RSS feeds

In-text citation:

The library extension will be completed in 2016 (University of Birmingham, 2015).

Reference list:

University of Birmingham. (2015, January 26). Library opening (RSS). Retrieved from https://www.bham.ac.uk/feeds/news/178

 

Author/organisation
Date of Feed
Title of communication (in italics)
Media type
Retrieved from…

S

Scientific datasets

In-text citation:

The data (Shevchenko, 2014)…

Reference list:

Shevchenko, A. (2014). Na levels holdings. Retrieved from http://physics.nist.gov/ajh5

 

Author
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Retrieved from…

Scientific or technical reports

In-text citation:

Jones has found (1997)…

Reference list:

Jones, B. (1997). Methods in tumour research. Vol 7. Close analysis of case studies (IARC Scientific Publication no. 46). Manchester, UK: National Agency for Tumour Research.

 

Author(s)
Year of publication
Title of report (in italics)
Publishing organisation
Report series and number
Place of publication: publisher

Screencasts

In-text citation:

An online video showed this (Learning rails the zombie way, no date)…

Reference list:

Learning rails the zombie way (screencast). (no date). Retrieved from http://www.rubyonrails.org

 

Title of screencast (in italics)
Media type
Year of publication (if relevant)
Retrieved from…

Song lyrics

In-text citation:

Peart (1976)…

Reference list:

Peart, N. (1976). A passage to Bangkok [Recorded by Rush]. On 2112 [vinyl]. Toronto: Toronto Sound Studios.

 

Author
Year of production
Title of song and recording artist
On album (in italics)
Media type
Production details

Statutory Instruments

In-text citation:

It was made clear (Terrorism Order, 2004)…

Reference list:

Terrorism Order (SI 2004/3354). (2004). Retrieved from http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2004/3354/contents/made

 

Name/title (in italics)
SI year and number
Year of publication
Retrieved from…

Student's own work

In-text citation:

The topic of the essay (Jubb, 2014)…

Reference list:

Jubb, A. (2014). Did the Allies win the battle of the Atlantic because of superior air power? University of Birmingham: unpublished essay.

 

Student name
Year of essay/assignment
Title of essay/assignment (in italics)
Module code/title (if relevant)
Institution
Unpublished essay/assignment

T

Television episode

In-text citation:

Some Daleks went crazy (The Doctor Returns, 2013)…

Reference list:

The Doctor Returns. (2013, November 5). Doctor Who (series 35, episode 8). London: BBC One Television.

 

Title of episode (in italics)
Date of showing
Name of series and episode
Publication details

Television programme

In-text citation:

The Doctor is back with a vengeance (Doctor Who, 2014)…

Reference list:

Doctor Who. (2014, January 28). BBC One Television. 

 

Title of programme
Year produced
Channel/Publisher

Television programmes viewed online

In-text citation:

Napoleon was defeated (BBC Two, 2015)…

Reference list:

BBC Two. (2015, June 17). Napoleon [BBC iPlayer]. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b05zq7xf/napoleon-episode-2

 

Author/Television channel
Year, date viewed
Title of programme (in italics)
Media type
Retrieved from…

Theses/dissertations

In-text citation:

It was evident that Gregory (1970) believed that…

Reference list:

Gregory, S. (1970). English military intervention in the Dutch revolt (B.A. thesis). Retrieved from http://findit.bham.ac.uk/

 

Author
Year of publication
Title of thesis (in italics)
Degree statement
Retrieved from…

Torah

In-text citation:

It is said that ‘a righteous man falls down several times and gets up’ (Proverbs 24:16)…

Reference list:

Torah. Proverbs 24:16.

 

Source type
Book
Chapter: verse

Translated works

In-text citation:

Ludwig (2005)…

Reference list:

Ludwig, E. (2005). Napoleon. (E. Paul and C. Paul, Trans.). London: Book Jungle.

 

Author/Editor (surname followed by initials)

Year of publication (in round brackets)

Title (in italics)

Name of translator, Trans. (in round brackets)

Place of publication: publisher

Tutor's handouts

In-text citation:

The tutor’s handout (Whittingham, 2015)…

Reference list:

Whittingham, D. (2015). Zulu warriors (handout). University of Birmingham: unpublished.

 

Tutor
Year of publication/creation
Title (in italics)
Media type
Institution
Unpublished 

Tutor's lecture notes in VLE/Intranet

In-text citation:

The tutor’s work (Whittingham, 2015)…

Reference list:

Whittingham, D. (2015). Zulu warriors (lecture notes). Retrieved from http://intranet.bham.ac.uk

 

Tutor
Year of publication
Title of notes
Media type
Module code and module title (if relevant)
Retrieved from…

Twitter

In-text citation:

The University (University of Birmingham, 2015)…

Reference list:

University of Birmingham. [unibirmingham]. (2015, June 13). We hope our alumni are having a great time today at the Alumni Sports Day. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/unibirmingham/status/609691694762627072

 

Author (surname followed by initials) and/or [Screen name]

Year, month day (in round brackets)

Title of page

[Tweet]

Retrieved from URL

U

V

Vidcasts

In-text citation:

Bob Saget is clearly a great guy (Butler & O’Rourke, 2014).

Reference list:

Butler, B. & O’Rourke, A. (Producers). (2014, June 20). Bob Saget: Norm Macdonald Live: Video Podcast Network [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=peDLWyHegfI

 

Author(s)/Producer(s)
Date of production
Title (in italics)
Media type
Retrieved from…

Video or films on YouTube

In-text citation:

The video produced by the University of Birmingham (2010) shows…

Reference list:

University of Birmingham. (2010, December 15). The University of Birmingham experience [YouTube]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YLxV5L6IaFA

 

Creator (surname followed by initials) and/or [Screen name]

Year, month day (in round brackets)

Title of video (in italics)

[Video file]

Retrieved from URL

Back to the top

W

War memorials

In-text citation:

The memorial (Boorman, 1995)…

Reference list:

Boorman, D. (1995). For your tomorrow. War memorial, York Minster, Deangate, York, UK.

 

Name of architect
Year of production
Title (in italics)
Media type
Location

Web page (individual author)

In-text citation:

It was clear that (Dan Snow, 2007)…

Reference list:

Dan Snow. (2007). How did so many soldiers survive the trenches? Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/z3kgjxs

 

Author

Year the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

Title of internet site (in italics)

doi: or Retrieved from URL

Web page (no authors)

In-text citation:

(Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821), 2015)…

Reference list:

Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821). (2015, July 18). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/bonrte_napoleon.shtml

 

Title of web page
Year, month day
Retrieved from…

Web page (no authors or titles)

In-text citation:

Thunderstorms have become increasingly common (“Blitzortung.org”, n.d.).

Reference list:

[Blitzortung.org.] (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.blitzortung.org/Webpages/index.php?lang=en&page=1

 

Description of document
Year or no date
Retrieved from…

Web page (no dates)

In-text citation:

He was seen by many to be a great man (BBC History, n.d.).

Reference list:

BBC History. (n.d.). Duke of Wellington (1769-1852). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wellington_duke_of.shtml

 

Name
(n.d.).
Title of web page
Retrieved from…

Web page (organisation as the author)

In-text citation:

During WW1 (BBC News, 2014)…

Reference list:

BBC News. (2014). ‘Lights out’ ends day of WW1 centenary commemorations. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-28632223

 

Author

Year the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)

Title of internet site (in italics)

doi: or Retrieved from URL

Wiki

In-text citation:

Rush originated from the Willowdale neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario (Rush (band), 2015).

Reference list:

Rush (band). (2015, June 18). Retrieved from Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Rush_(band)

 

Title of page
Year and date last edited
Retrieved from…

Wills

In-text citation:

They inherited a great wealth (Will of Jamie Blackburn, 1800).

Reference list:

Will of Jamie Blackburn of York Abbey, North Yorkshire.(1800). The National Archives: Public Record Office (catalogue reference: PROB/15/1980).

 

Title of document
Year of will
Name of archive or repository
Reference number

X

Y

Z

Back to the top

 Skip to: A-G    H-M    N-T    U-Z

 

Colleges

Professional Services