Vancouver: Reference List and Bibliography

Below you can find examples of a reference list and a bibliography for the Vancouver referencing system. Vancouver is commonly used in the medical and scientific disciplines - please see the main Vancouver index page for more information. 

How to list your references

In the Vancouver System the list of references is arranged in numerical order and is placed at the end of the work. For detailed guides on how to reference and cite different sources see the right-hand side panel.

Example of a reference list

  1. British Telecom. Office relocation gremlins [advertisement on ITV3 Television] (2012 Nov 19).
  2. Dym CL, Little P, Orwin EJ, Spjut RE. Engineering design: a project-based introduction. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2009.
  3. Institute for Large Businesses. Large firms policy and research conference (University of Birmingham, 1999 Dec 18-19). Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses; 1999.
  4. James J. ‘Some functional equations’, Advances in Algebra, 315(8), p1880-1899 [cited 2015 Jan 19). Available from:
  5. Lord Chancellor’s Department. Government policy on referencing (Cm 4517). London: The Stationery Office; 2000.
  6. Ordnance survey. York (sheet 56, 1:50 000). Southampton: Ordnance Survey (Landranger series); 2002.
  7. Paintings of John Doe [display board] (2012) [cited 2015 Apr 28]. Pontefract, UK: Alex Davids Art Gallery exhibition.

Example of a bibliography

Crime Commission. Prosecution appeals (Law Com No 567, Cm 8906). London: The Stationery Office; 2012.

Lucas G. The wonders of the Universe. 2nd ed. Jones F, Smith J, Bradley, T (editors). London: Smiths; 2004.

Jameson A. ‘International queries’, British business schools librarians group discussion list (2014 Mar 13). Available email:

Jones D. ‘Developing big business’, Large firms policy and research conference (University of Birmingham, 1999 Dec 18-19). Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses; 1999.

Whittingham D. Zulu Warriors. University of Birmingham: unpublished handout; 2015.

Style notes

  • The name of the journal is abbreviated according to the style used in Medline. Journal abbreviations can be found by looking at the complete reference (on Medline) and then looking under the heading abbreviated source. They can also be found listed on the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) website. 
  • The Vancouver system adopts a specific sequence for presentation of the elements of the reference.
  • Pay particular attention to the punctuation as shown above.
  • When referencing sources which have more than six authors, list the first six authors followed by 'et al.'
  • If submitting a manuscript for publication formatting conventions may be stipulated by the publisher. Always check with the publisher before submitting your work.

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