Vancouver A-Z

Below you can find detailed guidance on using the Vancouver system to reference a wide variety of different resources.

If you need further guidance please contact the Academic Skills Centre or look at the guidance available at Cite them right online. 

 NOTE: Some of the examples used below have been invented by Library Services.

Skip to: A-G    H-M    N-T    U-Z

A

Act of Parliament

In-text citation

It was evident that (1)...

Reference list:

1. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, s.8(1)(a). London: Stationery Office; 1974.

 

Title of Act
Year of Act
Statute number and statute details
Place of Publisher
Place of publication
Year of publication

Advertisements

In-text citation:

The advertisement by British Telecom (3)…

Reference list:

3. British Telecom. Office relocation gremlins [advertisement on ITV3 Television] (2012 Nov 19).

 

Author/organisation
Title of advert/brief description of advert
[advertisement on…]
Date seen (in round brackets)

Ancient texts

In-text citation:

The epic tale by Homer (9)…

Reference list:

9.  Homer. The Iliad. In Davies J, translator. London: Dover Publications; 1997.

 

Author
Title
In… translator… (if relevant)
Publication details
Series and volume number (if relevant)

Anthologies

In-text citation:

In their collection of poems, Mead and Tranter (7)…

Reference list:

7. Mead C, Tranter J (editors). The penguin book of modern Australian poetry. London: Bloodaxe Books; 1991.

 

Editor/editors
Title
Publication details

Atlases

In-text citation:

As illustrated in the text (6)

Reference list:

6. Oxford School Atlas. 3rd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2012.

 

Author/editor (if relevant)
Edition
Publication details
Series and volume number (where relevant)

Audiobooks

In-text citation:

Fry (8) was emphatic in his description of the beast.

Reference list:

8. Fry S. The Hippopotamus [audiobook]. 2004 [cited 2015 Jun 3]. Available from: http://www.audiobookstore.com/uk/.

 

Author/editor
Title
[audiobook]
Year/date of release
[cited…]
Available from:

B

Bible

In-text citation:

It was found in the Beatitudes. (4)

Reference list:

4. The Holy Bible. King James Version. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2013. Matthew 5:3-12.

 

Holy Bible
Version of the Bible
Publication details
Book of the Bible
Chapter:verse

Bibliographies

In-text citation:

Lifeson (6) noted the key research…

Reference list:

6. Lifeson A. Select bibliography of Canadian autobiographies. Toronto: University of Toronto, School of Librarianship; 1981.

 

Author/editor
Title
Edition (if relevant)
Publication details
Series and volume number (where relevant)

Bills from the Houses of Parliament

In-text citation:

It is clear that the Green Belt Bill (17) is inadequate. 

Reference list:

17. House of Commons. Green Belt Bill (Bills 1999-2000 9). London: The Stationary Office; 2009.

 

House of…
Title
Bill number (in round brackets)
Publication details
Year of publication

Birth, marriage and death certificates

In-text citation:

Jayne was born in Pontefract (8) …

Reference list:

8. ‘Jayne Seaman’. Certified copy of birth certificate for Jayne Seaman, 1966 Dec 20 (application number 5001977/D). Pontefract Register Office, UK; 1966.

 

Name of person (in single quotation marks)
Certified copy of… certificate for…
Full name of person
Date of event
application number (in round brackets)
Location of Register Office
Year of event

Blogs

In-text citation:

No evidence was suggested (9) in the wake of the bombings.

Reference list:

9. Davidson A. The Saudi Marathon Man. The New Yorker. Weblog. [Online] [cited 2015 June 22]. Available from: http://www.newyorker.com/news/daily-comment/the-saudi-marathon-man.

 

Author of message
Title of message
Title of internet site (in italics)
Weblog
[online]
[cited]
Available from: URL

BMJ - Journal Articles

The British Medical Journal or BMJ became an e-first journal in 2008.  Since then, article references may not have a page number which would refer back easily to the print.

The DOI – digital object identifier – is easily available from the BMJ article page, and should be included for articles from 2008.  DOIs can also be included for articles before 2008 if so wished, and this does have the advantage of making references look consistent whether from before or after that date.  It is not wrong to include electronic details in a journal article reference even if not technically required.

Example One

Electronic Journal with publication date details from BMJ

Iedema R, Allen S, Britton K, Piper D, Baker A, Grbich C, et al. Patients' and family members' views on how clinicians enact and how they should enact incident disclosure: the "100 patient stories" qualitative study.  BMJ [internet].   2011 [cited 2015 Nov 23]; 2011;343:d4423 (Published 25 July 2011). Available from doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d4423.

Author(s)

Title of article

Title of journal (capitalise all initial letters)

[internet]

Year of publication

[cited year month day];

Vol and issue no. with number for BMJ article preceded by lower case letter (eg c, d) as shown in above reference d4423

(Published day month year) – e-publication date from BMJ article itself.

Available from: Digital Object Identifier (doi)

Example Two

Referencing as a standard electronic Journal

Iedema R, Allen S, Britton K, Piper D, Baker A, Grbich C, et al. Patients' and family members' views on how clinicians enact and how they should enact incident disclosure: the "100 patient stories" qualitative study.  BMJ [internet].   2011 [cited 2015 Nov 23]; 2011;343:d4423. Available from doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d4423.

Author(s)

Title of article

Title of journal (capitalise all initial letters)

[internet]

Year of publication

[cited year month day];

Vol and issue no. with number for BMJ article preceded by lower case letter (eg c, d) as shown in above reference d4423

Available from: Digital Object Identifier (doi)

Book (printed, with one author)

In-text citation:

According to Guy, the Zulus faced many grave dangers when confronting the British. (1, p. 37)

Reference list:

1. Guy J. The view across the river: Harriette Colenso and the Zulu struggle against imperialism. Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia; 2001.

 

Author/editor

Title (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher;

Year of publication

Book (printed, two to six authors)

In-text citation:

Banerjee and Watson (2) have suggested…

Reference list:

2. Banerjee A, Watson TF. Pickard’s manual of operative dentistry. 9th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2011.

 

Author/editor

Title (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher;

Year of publication

 

Note:  if you have 6 or fewer, list all of them.  If there are more than 6 authors list the first 6 authors followed by et al.  

Book (printed, more than six authors)

In-text citation:

This was proved in health systems (3) 

Reference list:

3. Bourne AD, Davis P, Fuller E, Hanson AJ, Price KN, Vaughan JT, et al. Health systems. London: Fuller Ltd; 2008.

Note:  if you have 6 or fewer, list all of them.  If there are more than 6 authors list the first 6 authors followed by et al.   

 

Author/editor

Title (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher;

Year of publication

Book (printed, with an editor)

In-text citation:

This was clearly shown in Al-Sabbagh. (3) 

Reference list:

3. Al-Sabbagh M, editor.  Complications in implant dentistry. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Elsevier; 2015. (Dental clinics of North America; Vol. 59, no. 1).

 

Editor (followed by 'editor')

Title (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher;

Year of publication

Book (printed, chapter/sections of edited book)

 

In-text citation:

This was clearly shown by Sparkes. (3)

Reference list:

3. Sparkes V. Function of the spine. In Everett T, Kell C, editors. Human movement: an introductory text. 6th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingston Elsevier; 2010. p. 191‐ 209.

 Author of chapter

Title of chapter (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)

Editor(s) of Book (preceded by 'In', and followed by 'editors')

Title of Book

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher;

Year of publication.  Pagination of Chapter

Book (printed, no author)

In-text citation:

It is maintained that medicine has greatly improved over time. (6)

Reference list:

6. Medicine in old age. 2nd ed. London: British Medical Association; 1985.

 

Author/editor

Title (capitalise only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns)

Edition (only include the edition number if it is not the first edition)

Place of publication: publisher;

Year of publication

Book (in a digital repository)

In-text citation:

Several PhD candidates gave useful advice (18) …

Reference list:

18. Davids E, Wright I. Doing referencing. Birmingham: Reference-works; 1999. 

 

Reference books and journal articles in repositories should be referenced as you would for the corresponding print versions.

Book illustrations, figures, diagrams, logos and tables

 

In-text citation:

Jones’ painting illustrated his immense skill (9)…

Reference list:

9. Bevin A. Lost Welsh Treasures. London: Davies Publishers; 1997. Figure 17, p77-78.

 

Author of book
Title
Publication details
illus./fig./diagram/logo/table
Page reference

British National Formulary

In-text citation:

The drug Ibuprofen is used to treat pain and inflammation. (1)

Reference list:

1. Joint Formulary Committee. Ibuprofen – indications and dose.  In:  Joint Formulary Committee. British National Formulary [BNF online].  London: BMJ Group and the Royal Pharmaceutical Society; 2018 [cited 2018 Nov 30].  Doi: https://doi.org/10.18578/BNF.778077044

 

British Standards

In-text citation:

Attic conversions are subject to strict controls (6) …

Reference list:

6. British Standards Institution. BS5678-9.8: structural use of timber – ceiling binders [cited 2014 Jun 5]. Available from: http://www.standardsuk.com/

 

Name of authoring organisation
Number and title of standard
[cited…]
Available from: URL

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C

Cartoons

In-text citation:

Joe Bloggs (17) highlighted the issue…

Reference list:

17. Bloggs J. The key issue [Cartoon]. The Times. 2013 Jan 20 [cited 2015 July 25]. Available at: http://www.times.co.uk/world/cartoon/2013/jan/20/bloggs.

 

Artist
Title of cartoon
[cartoon]
Paper published in (in italics)
Date published
Available at: URL
[cited…]

CD-ROM

In-text citation:

The music industry has expanded greatly, and the ‘Now That’s What I Call Music’ series has proved this. (17)

Reference list:

17. Now that’s what I call music 91 [CD-ROM]. London: EMI Group Limited; 2015.

 

Title of publication
[CD-ROM]
Publication details

Censuses

In-text citation:

Mark Jones moved to York in the 1950s. (7) 

Reference list:

7.  ‘Mark Jones’. Census return for Leeds Road, Bishopthorpe, York subdistrict, North Yorkshire. Public Record Office: PRO YO9/3765, folio 89, p. 8 (1956) [cited 2015 Jun 23]. Available from: http://www.ancestry.co.uk

 

Name of person (in single quotation marks)
Census return for… Street, place, county
Public Record Office: Piece number, folio number, page number
Year of census (in round brackets)
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Clip art

In-text citation:

The image of the dinosaur (56)…

Reference list:

56. Dinosaur [clip art] [cited 2015 Jun 17]. Available from: http://www.clipart.co.uk/cgibin/dinosaur

 

Title of clip art
[clip art]
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Cochrane Library Review

In-text citation:

There was clear evidence (10) to suggest that…

Reference list:

10. McDonald S, Page MJ, Beringer K, Wasiak J, Sprowson A. Preoperative education for hip or knee replacement. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. [internet]. 2014 [cited 2015 Jun 23]; Issue 5. Art. No.: CD003526. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003526.pub3.

 

Author(s)
Title of publication
Database name
Year of publication
Issue number
Article Number (Art. No.:…)
Report number (CD…)

Collected works

In-text citation:

In his collected works, Geddy Lee (5) explains…

Reference list:

5. Lee G (editor). Rush: the early years (vols 1-30). Toronto: Toronto Press; 1976-90.

 

Author/editor
(author/editor)
Title
Vols (in brackets)
Publication details

Comics

In-text citation:

Dennis the Menace is still going strong (3)…

Reference list:

3. The wrath of Gnasher. The Beano. London: Beano Publishing; 25 July 2015. p. 40-42.

 

Author (where available)
Title of comic strip
Title of comic
Publication details (in round brackets)
Page reference

Command papers

In-text citation:

Useful advice (9) includes…

Reference list:

9. Lord Chancellor’s Department. Government policy on referencing (Cm 4517). London: The Stationery Office; 2000.

 

Name of committee or Royal Commission
Title
Paper number (in round brackets)
Publication details

Company annual reports

In-text citation:

The company expanded massively during the first half of the year (8) …

Reference list:

8. BSkyB Ltd. Annual report 2012 (2012) [cited 2013 Jan 9]. Available from: http://annualreview2012.sky.com

 

Author/organisation
Title of report
Year of publication (in round brackets)
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Computer games

In-text citation:

Games such as Rome: Total War (4)…

Reference list:

4. The Creative Assembly. Rome: Total War [computer game]. London: The Game Company; 2004.

 

Author (if given)
Title of game
[computer game]
Publication details

Computer programmes

In-text citation:

It has been found (28) that…

Reference list:

28. Epi Info [computer program]. Version 6. Atlanta (GA): Centres for Disease Control and Prevention; 1994.

 

Author
[computer program]
Version
Publication details

Concert

In-text citation:

Rush (35) wowed the audience…

Reference list:

35. Rush. Bishopthorpe Social Club, York, UK [concert]; 19 Mar 2015.

 

Composer
Location of performance
[concert]
Date of performance

Conference papers (in digital repositories)

In-text citation:

Jones (9) revoked the theory…

Reference list:

9. Jones S. Is there a correct way to reference? Workshop on referencing in universities; 2003 Mar 21-23; Main Library, University of Birmingham, UK. Available from: www.uniofbham.co.uk/referencing

 

Author
Title of conference paper
Title of conference
Date
Location
Available from: URL

Conference proceedings (full)

In-text citation:

The conference (9) …

Reference list:

9. Institute for Large Businesses. Large firms policy and research conference University of Birmingham, 1999 Dec 18-19. Leeds: Institute for Large Businesses; 1999.

 

Authors/editors
Title of conference
Location and date of conference (in round brackets)
Publication details
Year of publication
If published, add details of place and publisher or journal reference

Conference proceedings (published on the internet)

 

In-text citation:

Jones (3) explained…

Reference list:

3. Jones D. Developing big business. Large firms policy and research conference; 1999 Dec 18-19; Leeds, UK.

 

Authors/editors
Title of conference paper
Title of conference
Date
Location
If published, add details of place and publisher or journal reference

Conference paper (unpublished)

In-text citation:

Jones (3) explained…

Reference list:

3. Jones D. Developing big business. Paper presented at: Large firms policy and research conference; 1999 Dec 18-19; Leeds, UK.

 

Authors/editors.
Title of paper.
Paper presented at: title of conference;
Date
Location

Confidential information

In-text citation:

The records they produced (19)…

Reference list:

19. [Placement hospital]. [Placement hospital] examination criteria for patients with dementia. London: [Placement hospital]; 2014.

 

Anonymised institution/agency (in square brackets)
Anonymised title (in italics with square brackets for anonymised part)
Location: [anonymised producer]
Year produced

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D

 Dictionary

 In-text citation:

Acapnia is "the condition of not having enough carbon dioxide in the blood and tissues". (9)

Reference List:

9. Dictionary of medical terms [internet]. 4th ed. London: A & C Black; 2005 [cited 2016 Jan 6]. Acapnia; p3.  Available from:http://search.proquest.com/docview/1285121855?accountid=8630

Display

In-text citation:

It is obvious (3) that…

Reference list:

3. Paintings of John Doe [display board]. Pontefract, UK: Alex Davids Art Gallery exhibition; 2012 [cited 2015 Apr 28].

 

Title
[display board]
[cited…]
Location of display
Year published (if relevant)

DVD-ROM

In-text citation:

It was evident that (13) …

Reference list:

13. Saving Private Ryan [DVD]. Hollywood: Paramount Pictures; 1998.

 

Title of publication
[DVD]
Publication details

E

E-Book

In-text citation:

Within English medicine, there were a great many changes. (3)

Reference list:

3. Wear A. Knowledge and practice in English medicine [internet]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2000 [cited 2015 June 17]. Available from: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/bham/detail.action?docID=5004608.

 

Author/editor
Title of book
[internet]
Publication details
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Electronic discussion groups and bulletin boards

 

In-text citation:

This was discussed by Jameson (23) …

Reference list:

23. Jameson A. ‘International queries’, British business schools librarians group discussion list (2014 Mar 13). Available email: lisbusinessschools@gmail.com

 

Author of message
Subject of the message (in single quotation marks)
Discussion group or bulletin board
Date posted (in round brackets)
Available email: URL

European Union publications

In-text citation:

The predicted migration of labour (1)…

Reference list:

1. European Commission. Making globalisation profitable. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities; 2007.

 

Name of EU institution
Title
Publication details
Year of publication

Exhibitions

In-text citation:

The acclaimed exhibition in London is one to behold (2)...

Reference list:

2. Pre-Raphaelites: Victorian avant-garde [exhibition]. London: Tate Modern; 2012 Sept 12 – 2013 Jan 13 [cited 5 Dec 2012].

 

Title of exhibition
[exhibition]
Location and dates of exhibition
[cited…]

F

Facebook

In-text citation:

The University of Birmingham is soon to have a new library. (2)

Reference list:

2. University of Birmingham. New for 2016 on campus will be a fabulous library, filled with new and emerging technologies. [Facebook]. 2015 June 9 [cited 2015 June 18 2015]. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/unibirmingham.

 

Author
Message (or in brief if the post is longer than a short sentence)
URL
[Facebook]
Date posted
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Financial reports from online databases

In-text citation:

BSkyB’s profit margin rose by over 7 per cent in the financial year 2011-12. (19) 

Reference list:

19. Bureau van Dijk. BSkyB PLC company report [cited 2013 Jan 8]. Available from: http://fame.bvdep.com/bskyb

 

Publishing organisation
Title of extract
[cited…]
Available from: URL

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G

Graffiti

In-text citation:

The graffiti (8) was very bold…

Reference list:

8. Unknown artist. Jimmy no! [graffiti]. 15 West Street, York, UK; 2015 Jun 23.

 

Artist (or unknown artist)
Title or description
[graffiti]
Location of graffiti
Date viewed

Graphs

In-text citation:

The effects of the atoms (5)…

Reference list:

5. Gray A. How to reference scientific papers. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1987, p. 87 [graph].

 

Author
Title of book
Publication details
Page reference
[graph]

H

Hansard

In-text citation:

Dr Sugar expressed his views quite clearly (14)…

Reference list:

14. House of Commons. House of Commons debate (2009 Jan 20, vol 500 col 1990) [cited 2010 Aug 19]. Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/hcdeb1990

 

House of…
House of… debate
Date of debate, volume number, column number (round brackets)
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Historical books in online collections

In-text citation:

James’ measured plans (2)…

Reference list:

2. James P. Ruins of the palace at Thermopylae. London: printed for the author; 1654 [cited 18 June 2015]. Available from: http://site.ebrary.com/lib/birmingham

 

Author/editor
Title
Publication details
[cited…]
Available from: URL

House of Commons and House of Lords papers

 

In-text citation:

Parliamentary reports for the year included renewable energy (8) and…

Reference list:

8. House of Lords. Electricity from renewables: the first report (HL 2003-2004 (19)). London: The Stationary Office; 2004.

 

House of…
Title
Paper number (in round brackets)
Publication details

I

Internal reports

In-text citation:

Recommendations in the report (6)…

Reference list:

6. Hegenbath L. Focus group recommendations. Internal LGU report: unpublished; 2014.

 

Author/organisation
Title of report
Internal report (including name of institution)
unpublished; year produced

Interview (with a film director)

In-text citation:

The directors were incredibly pleased with the outcome (7)…

Reference list:

7. Wachowski L. Interview with L. Wachowski (interviewed by Laurence Smith on ‘The Matrix Reloaded’ [DVD]). Los Angeles: Warner Brothers Inc.; 2003.

 

Name of person interviewed
Interview with…
(interviewed by… on… [DVD])
Publication details

Interview (internet)

In-text citation:

Jones was clearly out of his depth. (9)

Reference list:

9. Jones K. Interview with Kevin Jones. Interviewed by Steven Poulter for Newsnight, 2009 Mar 7 [cited 2015 Jun 17]. Available from: http://iplayer.co.uk/Newsnight/march7

 

Name of person interviewed
Title of interview
Interviewed by… for…
Date of transmission
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Interview (newspaper)

In-text citation:

Jones (6) believed…

Reference list:

6. Jones K. Interview with Kevin Jones. Interview by Steven Poulter for The Times; 2009 Jul 7, p. 88.

 

Name of person interviewed
Title of interview
Interview by… for…
Date of publication
Page reference (where relevant)

Interview (television)

In-text citation:

Jones was clearly out of his depth (3), and struggled greatly.

Reference list:

3. Jones K. Interview with Kevin Jones. Interviewed by Steven Poulter for Newsnight. London: BBC Two Television; 5 February 2009.

 

Name of person interviewed
Title of interview
Interviewed by… for…
Publication details
Date of transmission

Inscription (on a building)

In-text citation:

The exterior inscription by Stevens (7)…

Reference list:

7. Stevens G. Inscription on English development centre [inscription on building]. Jubbergate, York, UK; 2005 [cited 2008 Mar 17].

 

Author (if known)
Inscription on…
[inscription on building]
Location of inscription
Year created (if relevant)
[cited…]

Inscription (on a monument)

In-text citation:

The gravestone of the man (6) showed him to be the man he truly was.

Reference list:

6. ‘James Smith’ [monument inscription]. St Andrews Churchyard, Bishopthorpe York; 2014 [cited 2015 Jun 22].

 

Name of deceased (in single quotation marks)
[monument inscription]
Location of monument
Date created
[cited…]

Installations

In-text citation:

It was clear (18) that…

Reference list:

18. Thompson J. My house [installation]. London: Tate Modern; 2009 Jan 4.

 

Artist
Title of installation
[installation]
Gallery of location, date viewed

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J

Journal articles

For information about referencing BMJ articles see BMJ - Journal Articles.

In-text citation:

In their review of the literature (7)…

Reference list:

7. Knapik JJ, Cosio-Lima LM, Reynolds KL. Efficacy of functional movement screening for predicting injuries in coast guard cadets. J Strength Cond Res 2015; 29 (5): 1157-1162.

E-Journal

7. Knapik JJ, Cosio-Lima LM, Reynolds KL. Efficacy of functional movement screening for predicting injuries in coast guard cadets. J Strength Cond Res [internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 June 23]; 29(5): 1157-1162. Available from: http://journals.lww.com/jscr/Abstract/2015.

Note:  if you have 6 or fewer authors, list all of them.  If there are more than 6 authors list the first 6 authors followed by et al. 

 

Author(s)
Title of article
Title of journal (capitalise all initial letters)
[internet]
Date of publication as year month day
[cited year month day];
Volume (issue):
Page numbers (not preceded by p.)
Available from: URL or Digital Object Identifier (doi)

Journal articles (accessed via VLE)

In-text citation:

In their review of the literature (9, p. 1158)…

Reference list:

9. Knapik JJ, Cosio-Lima LM, Reynolds KL. Efficacy of functional movement screening for predicting injuries in coast guard cadets. J Strength Cond Res 2015 [cited 2015 June 25]; 29 (5): 1157-1162.  EDUC 1028: E-learning. Available at: http://canvas.bham.ac.uk.

Author(s)
Year of publication (in round brackets)
Title of article (in single quotation marks)
Journal article
Volume, issue, page number
Page references
Module code: module title (in italics)
Available at: URL
[cited…]

Journal article (more than six authors)

In-text citation:

Bangladesh has treated its patients with a new drug. (4)

Reference list:

4. Meakin CJ, King DA, White J, Scott JM, Handley H, Griffiths A, et al. Screening for depression in the medically ill. J Nerv Ment Dis 1991; 12: 45-53.

Note:  if you have 6 or fewer authors, list all of them.  If there are more than 6 authors list the first 6 authors followed by et al. as shown above.  

 

Author(s)
Title of article
Title of journal
Date of publication as year month day;
Volume (issue):
Page numbers (not preceded by p.)

Journal articles (pre-published)

In-text citation:

Several scientists have encountered a problem in this area. (6)

Reference list:

6. Jones J, Kree J, Rigby P. Aerobic capacity. To be published in J Strength and Cond Res.  [Preprint]. 2015 [cited 2015 Jun 23]. Available from: http://journals.lww.com/jscr/Abstract/2015 .

 

Author(s). Reports
Title of article.
Title of journal.
Forthcoming [cited year month day];
Epub year month day.
Volume (issue):
Page numbers.
Available from: URL OR doi: doi number.

K

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L

Law commission reports and consultation papers

 

In-text citation:

The report (2) …

Reference list:

2. Crime Commission. Prosecution appeals (Law Com No 567, Cm 8906). London: The Stationery Office; 2012.

 

Law Commission
Title of report or consultation paper
Number of report or consultation paper, command paper number (in round brackets)
Publication details
Year of publication

Leaflets

In-text citation:

Barclays Bank (9)…

Reference list:

9. Barclays Bank PLC. Mortgages [leaflet] (no date) [cited 2015 Jun 8].

 

Author (individual or corporate)
Title
[leaflet]
Date (if relevant, and in round brackets)
[cited…]

 Legal Cases

There are distinct guidelines for the referencing of legal sources such as court cases. These are set out in OSCOLA and these guidelines do not conform to the usual Numbering/Vancouver format.  Square brackets are used around a date if there is no volume number, but round brackets are used if there is a volume number.

Required details:

Name of the case or the name of the parties involved in the case

Date - in square brackets if no volume number and in round brackets if there is a volume number.

Volume number if used, abbreviated name of the report series and first page of report

Reference list:

R v. Charnley (Kenneth Desmond) [2007] EWCA Crim 1354

Note: Square brackets round date because there is no volume number

R v. Derek Roy Taylor (1977) 64 Cr App R 182

Note: round brackets around date because there is a volume number.

More information about referencing legal material using the Vancouver/Numbering system can be found at the Monash University website, but it is advisable to consult with your School or tutor first for guidance on how legal material should be referenced for your subject.

Legislation from UK devolved assemblies

In-text citation:

In the legislation (10)…

Reference list:

10. Budget (Wales) Act 2008 (asp 2) [cited 2009 Mar 19]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2008/2/contents

 

Title of Act
asp number (in round brackets)
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Lines from a play

In-text citation:

‘I prithee do not mock me fellow student’ (8)…

Reference list:

 8. Shakespeare W. Hamlet. In Bryant K, editor. London: Penguin; 1998.

 

Author
Title
In…Editor/Translator
Publication details

M

Magazine articles

In-text citation:

Stevens discusses this clearly (9)…

Reference list:

9. Stevens N. Circular motion. Physics monthly. 2011; November: pp. 8-15.

 

Author
Title of article (in italics)
Title of journal
Year of publication
Month of publication
Page references

Manuscripts

In-text citation:

The evidence (4) points to…

Reference list:

4. Simpson J. 6/57/896 [manuscript]. Birmingham, UK: Birmingham University Library; 1865.

 

Author
Manuscript numeric details – reference number
[manuscript]
Location of manuscript
Name of collection containing manuscript
Year (if relevant)

Map (online)

In-text citation:

The social club is close to the playing field (5)…

Reference list:

5. Ordnance survey. Ferry lane [map].  2010 [cited 2014 Jun 8]. Tile sp15nw, 1:10 000. Available from: http://edina.ac.iuk/digimap/

 

Map publisher
Title of map section
[map] 
Year of publication 
[cited…]
Sheet number or tile, scale
Available from: URL

Map (ordnance survey)

In-text citation:

Archaeological sites are clearly shown (9)…

Reference list:

9. Ordnance survey. York [map].   Southampton: Ordnance Survey; 2002. 1:50 000. Landranger Series; 16.

 

Author
Title
Medium
Place of publication: publisher; year
Series
Sheet number

Market research reports from online databases

 

In-text citation:

Mintel Oxygen (9) noticed problems in the market.

Reference list:

9. Mintel Oxygen. Van insurance Wales. [internet].  2014 [cited 2014 Jul 18]. Available from: http://academic.minteloxygen.com

 

Author/organisation
Title of report
Year of publication (in round brackets)
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Mathematical equations

In-text citation:

James (8) notes that…

Reference list:

8. James J. Some functional equations. Advances in Algebra. [internet]. 2014 Oct [cited 2015 Jan 19]; 315(8): 1880-1899.  Available from: http://mathematicjournals.co.uk/James

Author
Title of article
Title of journal
Volume, issue, page numbers
Date [cited…]
Available from: URL

Medical images

In-text citation:

The X-ray (5) evidently showed…

Reference list:

5. The femur [X-ray].  [internet].  2014 [cited 2015 Jun 25]. Available from: http://www.anatomy.tv/femur

 

Image title
[X-ray]
[internet]
Year of publication 
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Microform

In-text citation:

Data from Jones (12)…

Reference list:

12. Jones P. The Jones collection [microform]. York, UK: Jones Physiological Association; 1997.

 

Author
Title of microform
[microform]
Place of publication: publisher
Year of publication

Military records

In-text citation:

Private Hunsley fought valiantly (3)…

Reference list:

3. ‘Richard Hunsley VC’. Commonwealth War Graves Commission casualty details. [internet]. 1956 [cited 2015 Jun 21]. Available from: http://www.cwgc.org/search/casualty/hunsleyvc

 

Name of person (in single quotation marks)
Title of publication
Year of publication (in round brackets)
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Minutes of meetings

In-text citation:

The library staff committee (12) suggested…

Reference list:

12. Library staff committee. Item 4.2: developing technology. Minutes of library staff committee meeting 2014 Jan 24. Main Library, University of Birmingham; 2014.

 

Author (individual or group if identified)
Item being referenced (in single quotation marks)
Title and date of meeting (in italics)
Organisation
Location of meeting
Year of publication

Mood boards

In-text citation:

The mood board (4)…

Reference list:

4. Smith D. Hello [mood board]. [internet]. 2012 [cited 2015 Jun 19]. Available from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/hello/57647

 

Artist (if known)
Title
[mood board]
[internet]
Year of publication
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Multi-volume works

In-text citation:

Jones (6) suggests that…

Reference list:

6. Jones D, editor. Definitions of life. London: Pirate Publishers; 1999.

 

Author/editor
(author/editor)
Title
Publication details
Volumes (if relevant)

N

Newspaper article

In-text citation:

Businesses and organisations around York are showing their support. (9)

Reference list:

9. Lewis S. Rainbow support for York pride. The Press, York. 2015 June 18: 6.

 

Author/byline
Title of article
Title of newspaper (in italics)
Date of publication: page reference

NICE/NHS Guidelines

In-text citation:

This topic is covered by NICE Guideline NG28. (7)

Reference list:

7. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.  Type 2 diabetes in adults: management. NICE guidelines NG28 [internet]. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2015 [cited 2016 Jan 6]. Available from: http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng28

 

Author(s)
Title of guideline
Guideline Number
[internet]
Place of publication
Publisher 

Year of publication
Date cited
Available from: URL

NICE/NHS and other guidance is regularly reviewed and updated.  There may be different ways to include this information as required.

In-text citation (NICE/NHS guidance entry with update):

In the relevant guideline the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (7) outlines …

 Reference list (NICE/NHS guidance entry with update):

7. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence.  Stable angina: management.  NICE guidelines CG126 [internet]. London: National Institute for Health and Care Excellence; 2011 [updated 2016 Aug; cited 2021 Jan 5]. Available from: https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg126

Non-English works

In-text citation:

Napoleon was a natural leader. (5)

Reference list:

5. Maria Dell’Isola. Napoleon [Napoléon]. Paris: R. Helleu; 1934.

 

Author/editor
Title (italics)
[title in the foreign language] (in italics)
Publication details 

Back to the top

O

P

Packaging

In-text citation:

The packaging (9) made it clear that…

Reference list:

9. Mars Incorporated. Mars Bar [wrapper]. 2013.

 

Manufacturer
Title of package
[medium of package]
Year of production

Paintings/drawings

In-text citation:

Works by Dali (2) are fascinating.

Reference list:

2. Dali S. Madonna [oil on canvas]. London: Tate Gallery; 1958.

 

Artist
Title of work
[Medium of work]
Institution or collection that houses the work
Year (if available)

Pamphlet

In-text citation:

The pamphlet (7)…

Reference list:

7. Royal College of Physicians, British Geriatrics Society, British Pain Society. The assessment of pain in younger people: local guidelines [pamphlet]. No. 9. London: RCP; 2008 (Concise guidance to good practice series).

 

Author/editor
Title
[pamphlet]
Title of pamphlet (if relevant)
Volume number (where relevant)
Publication details
Series title (in round brackets)

Parish registers

In-text citation:

Alex and Alice’s wedding (2)…

Reference list:

2. ‘Alex Jones and Alice Roberts’ (Marriage of Alex Jones and Alice Roberts, 1934 May 5). St Andrew’s Church Bishopthorpe, York marriage register 1900-1950 [cited 2015 Mar 29]. Available from: http://www.genuki.org.uk/bishopthorpe

 

Name of person/people (in single quotation marks)
Baptism, marriage or burial of…, full names, date of event (all in round brackets)
Title of register
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Patents

In-text citation:

Fredericks proposed a solution. (3)

Reference list:

3. Fredericks F. Vinyl cleaning tool (UK Intellectual Property Office Patent no. GB2468906). [internet]. 2012 Nov 20 [cited 2013 Jun 5]. Available from: http://www.ipo.gov.uk/p/find-publication

 

Inventor
Title
Authorising organisation and patent number (in round brackets)
Available from: URL

Personal communications

Unpublished communications

Personal, unpublished communications should be acknowledged within the in-text citation or main body of the text, but not in the full reference list entry.  The clarifying term ‘unreferenced’ can be included.   A ‘Notes’ section may be used at the end of the piece of work to give further details of the communication if required. 

Permission should always be sought from the author(s) for including reference to the communication(s) concerned. Patient confidentiality means that you will need to use a pseudonym for any patient(s) involved.

Examples:

  • This was indicated by J Smith (2022 email to me, unreferenced, see “Notes”)
  • In their letter to this author, S Ali (2021, unreferenced)…

 Published communications:

If the communication is published or available in an archive you should include it in your reference list.

In-text citation

In Bodkin's letter to Miss Hendry (1) ...

Reference list:

(1)    Thomas Bodkin (The Athenaeum, Pall Mall, London SW1). Letter to: Miss Hendry [address not stated]. 1942. June 2. 1 page. Located at Cadbury Research Library, University of Birmingham, XLAdd - Letters Additional Collection - 1506-2000, LAdd/6456.

Author’s name

(Author’s address)

Form of correspondence, e.g. letter Recipient’s name

(Recipient’s address)

Year. Month Day

Number of pages

Place the item can be retrieved and finding number

Phonecasts

In-text citation:

Zuckerberg created his website (89)…

Reference list:

89. A conversation with Mark Zuckerberg [phonecast] 2007 [cited 2014 Jun 27]. Available from: http://www.phonecasting.com/Channel/View/Channel.aspx

 

Title of phonecast 
[phonecast]
Year of publication 
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Photographic prints or slides

In-text citation:

It is ever so clear (3) that…

Reference list:

3. Tebow T. York at night [photograph]. York: Here and There Publishing; 2009.

 

Photographer
Title of photograph
[photograph]
Place of publication: publisher
Year of publication

Photographs from the internet

In-text citation:

The great photograph (5)…

Reference list:

5. Jarvis C. Blue [Photograph]. [internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 June 18]. Available from: http://www.chasejarvis.com/#s=10&mi=2&pt=1&pi=10000&p=8&a=0&at=0

 

Photographer
Title of photograph
[photograph]
[internet]
Year of publication
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Plays

In-text citation:

It was a spectacular piece of engineering (9)…

Reference list:

9. Smith D, director. Romeo and Juliet [play]. Theatre Royal, York, UK; 2013.

 

Director
Title of play
[play]
Location of play: year seen

Podcasts

In-text citation:

It was clear that George Osborne was well out of his depth. (81)

Reference list:

81. 18th June 15 [BBC podcast]. London: BBC; 2015 [cited 2015 June 19]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p02tys33.

 

Author/presenter (if known, otherwise use title)
[medium]
Publication details
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Postcards

In-text citation:

The shore was beautiful. (6)

Reference list:

6. Terrence T. Tintagel [postcard]. England: Cornwall Gallery; no date.

 

Artist (if available)
Title of postcard
[postcard]
Place of publication: publisher
Year (if available)

Posters

In-text citation:

The image (9)…

Reference list:

9. Severn J. Le Joue [poster]. London: Early Morning Publishers; no date.

 

Artist (if known)
Title
[poster]
Publication details
Year (if known)

PowerPoint presentations

In-text citation:

The great presentation (4)…

Reference list:

4. Whittingham D. History of warfare [PowerPoint presentation]. [internet]. 2014 [cited 2014 Jun 7]. Available at: https://intranet.bham.ac.uk

 

Author or tutor
Title of presentation
[PowerPoint presentation]
Year of publication
[cited…]
Available at: URL

Press releases and announcements

In-text citation:

This development (2)…

Reference list:

2. Google Inc. Google Maps changes forever [press release]. [internet]. 2015 Dec 29 [cited 2015 Dec 30]. Available from: http://www.google.com/intl/en/news

 

Author/organisation
Title of communication
[press release]
[Date released]
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Publications of international organisations

In-text citation:

Reports (12) suggested…

Reference list:

12. International Chamber of Commerce, Commission for Air Transport. The need for greater liberalization. [internet]. 2010 [cited 2014 Feb 8]. Available from: http://www.iccwbo.org/liberalization

 

Name of organisation or institution
Title
Year of publication (in round brackets)
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Back to the top

Q

Qur'an

In-text citation:

‘Nothing is hidden from Allah, whether on Earth or in Heaven’. (5)

Reference list:

5. Qur’an. 14:38.

 

Qur’an
Surah: verse
Publication details (if relevant)

R

Radio and internet radio

In-text citation:

According to the latest research (8)…

Reference list:

8. The Sun. BBC Radio 4 [radio broadcast]. 2015 Jan 1.

8. The Sun. BBC Radio 4 [radio broadcast]. [internet]. 2015 Jan 1. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b048nlfb#auto [cited 2015 Jan 23].

 

Title of programme (in italics)
Name of channel
[radio broadcast]
Date of transmission
Available at: URL
[cited…]

Reprint editions

In-text citation:

One of the very first historians (9)…

Reference list:

9. Seaman D. The king of the truth [reprint]. London: B.Y. Jove; 1998/1945.

 

Author/editor
Title
[reprint]
Publication details for reprint publication and publisher
Year of reprint/year of original print

Requests for Comments

In-text citation:

A number of comments were made relating to the document. (6)

Reference list:

6. Hoff D. The Baywatch years (Nos: FYA 19 and RFC 5879).  [internet]. [cited 2009 Oct 20]. Available from: http://tools.ietf.org/hoff

 

Author/editor
Title
Document number (in round brackets)
[internet]
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Research reports

In-text citation:

The minimum cost of living in Yorkshire is £15 000. (2)

Reference list:

Example of a report in electronic format

2. Friedland B. A minimum income standard for Yorkshire: what people think. [internet]. 2015 [cited 2015 Jun 19].Report No.: 26. Available from: http://www.jrf.org.uk/yorkshireresearch

 

Author/organisation
Title of report
[medium]
Year of publication
[cited…]
Report No. if available
Available from: URL

 

Example of a report in print

2. Friedland B. A minimum income standard for Yorkshire: what people think.  York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation; 2015.  Report No. 26

 

Omit report number if report number is not available.

 

Review (book) 

In-text citation:

Stevens (13) thought the book…

Reference list:

13. Stevens H. Biology of birds [Review of ‘The birds and the bees’ by David Bills]. Jnl Bio Hist. 2015 Mar [cited 2019 Dec 5]; 50(2):190-192. 

 

Name of the reviewer
Title of the review
[Review of… by…]
Where review was found (usually in a book or journal, include page references)
Publication details (if relevant)

Review (drama)

In-text citation:

One reviewer (4) wrote…

Reference list:

4. Smith U. The big finale [review of ‘heaven help me’, by Tony Jones] in The Times; 2007 Jul 8. 

 

Name of the reviewer
Title of review
[Review of… by….]
in…
Date published

Review (film)

In-text citation:

Barnes (8) believed it to be a great film.

Reference list:

8. Barnes J. Citizen Kane [review of ‘Citizen Kane’, directed by Orson Welles]. In Empire magazine; 1989 Oct 9, p. 25-29.

 

Name of the reviewer
Title of review
[review of…, directed by…]
In…
Date of publication
Page references (where relevant)

Review (musical performance)

In-text citation:

Jubb (15) thought the performance was incredible.

Reference list:

15. Jubb A. Absolute magic [review of ‘Clockwork Angels’ by Rush, York, UK]. In The Press (review section); 2015 Mar 29, p. 91.

 

Name of the reviewer
Title of review
[review of…, by…]
In…
Date of publication
Page references (where relevant)

RSS feeds

In-text citation:

The library extension will be completed in 2016 (32)…

Reference list:

32. University of Birmingham Library. Library opening [RSS] . [internet]. 2015 Jan 26 [cited 2015 Feb 18]. Available from: https://www.bham.ac.uk/feeds/news/178

 

Author/organisation
Title of communication
[RSS]
[internet]
Date (in round brackets)
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Back to the top

S

Scientific datasets

In-text citation:

The data (2)…

Reference list:

2. Shevchenko A. Na levels holdings.  [internet]. 2014 [cited 2015 Jan 9]. Available from: http://physics.nist.gov/ajh5

 

Author
Title of data
Year of publication 
[internet]
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Scientific or technical report

In-text citation:

Jones has found (9)…

Reference list:

9. Jones B. Methods in tumour research. Vol 7. Close analysis of case studies. National Agency for Tumour Research, Manchester, UK; 1997. IARC Scientific Publication no. 46. 

 

Author
Title of report
Volume
Publishing Organisation, place of publication
Year of publication
Report Series and number

Screencasts

In-text citation:

An online video (9) showed this.

Reference list:

9. Learning rails the zombie way [screencast]. [internet]. [no date] [cited 2014 Jan 12]. Available from: http://www.rubyonrails.org

 

Title of screencast 
[screencast]
[internet]
date or [no date]
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Statutory instruments

In-text citation:

It was made clear (7) that…

Reference list:

7. Terrorism Order 2004 (SI 2004/3554). [internet]. [cited 2013 Jan 19]. Available from: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/2004/3354/contents/made

 

Name 
SI year and number (in round brackets)
[internet]
[cited…]
Available from:URL

Student's own work

In-text citation:

The topic of the essay (5)…

Reference list:

5. Jubb A. Did the Allies win the battle of the Atlantic because of superior air power? University of Birmingham: unpublished essay; 2014.

 

Student name
Title of essay/assignment
Institution: unpublished essay/assignment
Year of submission

T

Television programmes viewed online

In-text citation:

…Napoleon was defeated. (9)

Reference list:

9. Napoleon. BBC 2 [television broadcast]. 2015 June 17. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/episode/b05zq7xf/napoleon-episode-2 [cited 2015 Jun 18].

 

Title of programme (in italics)
Channel
[television broadcast]
Date published
Available at: URL
[cited…]

Theses/dissertations

In-text citation:

As discussed by Gregory (8)…

Reference list:

8. Gregory S. English military intervention in the Dutch revolt [B.A. thesis]. Birmingham (UK): University of Birmingham; 1970.

 

Author
Title of thesis
[thesis/dissertation]
Location
Degree-awarding body
Year of submission

Torah

In-text citation:

It is said that ‘a righteous man falls down seven times and gets up’. (8, p. 47)

Reference list:

8. The Torah. London: Kuperard Publishers; 2010. Proverbs 24:16.

 

Torah
Publication details
Book
Chapter: verse

Translated works

In-text citation:

Ludwig (7) feared the worst for Napoleon…

Reference list:

7. Ludwig E. Napoleon. Paul E and Paul C, translators. London: Book Jungle; 2005.

 

Author/editor
Title (in italics)
Translators
Publication details

Tutor's handouts

In-text citation:

The tutor’s handout (8)…

Reference list:

8. Whittingham D. Zulu Warriors. University of Birmingham: unpublished handout; 2015.

 

Tutor
Title of handout
Institution: unpublished handout
Year of distribution

Tutor's lecture notes in VLE/Intranet

In-text citation:

The tutor’s notes (15)…

Reference list:

15. Whittingham D. Zulu warriors. University of Birmingham: unpublished notes; 2015.

 

Author or tutor
Title of notes
Establishment
unpublished notes
Year of access

Twitter

In-text citation:

The University of Birmingham are well accomplished in using social media. (19)

Reference list:

19. University of Birmingham. We hope our alumni are having a great time today at the Alumni Sports Day via @unibirmingham https://twitter.com/unibirmingham/status/609691694762627072 [Twitter]. [internet]. 2015 Jun 13 [Cited 2015 June 17]. Available from: https://twitter.com/unibirmingham.

 

Author of message
Message (or in brief if it is longer than a short sentence)
via Twitter handle
URL
[Twitter]
[internet]
Date of post
[cited…]
Available from: URL

Back to the top

U

V

Vidcast/Vodcast

In-text citation:

The vodcast (19)…

Reference list:

19. Bob Saget: Norm Macdonald Live: Video Podcast Network. Vodcast. [internet]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=peDLWyHegfI [cited 2015 June 22].

 

Author (if known, otherwise use title in italics)
Vodcast
[internet]
Available from: URL
[cited…]

Video or film on YouTube

In-text citation:

The video produced by the University of Birmingham (4) shows…

Reference list:

4. The University of Birmingham. The University of Birmingham experience [YouTube]. [internet]. 2010 Dec 15 [cited 2015 June 18]. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/birm17936443620vsaieu278.

 

Name of person/organisation posting the video
Title of video
[YouTube]
[internet]
Date of video’s publication
[cited…]
Available from: URL

W

War memorials

In-text citation:

The memorial (5)…

Reference list:

5. Boorman D. For your tomorrow [war memorial]. York Minster, Deangate, York, UK; 1995 [cited 2014 Jun 22].

 

Name of architect (if known)
Title of memorial
[war memorial]
Location of memorial
Date of construction
[cited…]

Web page (individual author)

In-text citation:

“Millions of soldiers died on the Western Front” in World War One. (15)

Reference list:

15. Snow D. How did so many soldiers survive the trenches? [internet]. 2014 [cited 2015 July 18]. Available from:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/z3kgjxs

 

Author
Title of web page
[internet]
Year that site was published
[cited year month day]
Number of screens or pages

Available from: URL

Web page (no authors)

In-text citation:

Millions of men died on the Western Front. (8)

Reference list:

8. How did so many soldiers survive the trenches? [internet]. 2014 [cited 2015 July 18]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/guides/z3kgjxs

 

Title of page
[internet]

Year that site was published
[cited year month day]
Number of screens or pages

Available from: URL

Web page (no authors or titles)

In-text citation:

Thunderstorms have become increasingly common. (8)

Reference list:

8. [2015; cited 2015 June 18]. [internet]. Available from: http://www.blitzortung.org/Webpages/index.php?lang=en&page=1.

 

[Year of publication; cited…]
[internet]
Available from: URL

Web page (no dates)

In-text citation:

He was seen by many to be a great man. (43)

Reference list:

43. BBC History. Duke of Wellington (1769-1852). [internet]. [date unknown] [cited 2015 June 18]. Available from:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/wellington_duke_of.shtml

 

Author
Title
[internet]
[date unknown]
[cited year month day]
Available from: URL

Web page (organization as the author)

In-text citation:

During WW1 (5)…

Reference list:

5. BBC News. ‘Lights out’ ends day of WW1 centenary commemorations. [internet]. 2014 [cited 2014 June 18]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-28632223. 

 

Organisation
Title of page
[internet]
Year of publication
[cited…]
Number of screens or pages
Available from: URL

Wiki

In-text citation:

Rush originated from the Willowdale neighbourhood of Toronto, Ontario. (4)

Reference list:

4. Wikipedia: the free encyclopaedia [Internet]. Rush (band); [modified 2015 June 18; cited 2015 June 18]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/?title=Rush_(band). 

 

Title of Wiki
[internet]
Title of article
[last modified, cited…]
Available from: URL

 Wills

In-text citation:

They inherited a great wealth (3)…

Reference list:

3. Will of Jamie Blackburn of York Abbey, North Yorkshire. The National Archives: Public Record Office (catalogue reference: PROB/15/1980).

 

Title of document (in italics)
Name of archive or repository
Reference number (in brackets).
[cited… (if relevant)]

X

Y

Z

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A-G    H-M    N-T    U-Z

 

 

Colleges

Professional Services